Open Access Original Research Article

Cerebral Small Vessel Disease – A Longitudinal 10 Years Evidenced Study

S. S. Subramanian

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i430184

A Cluster of geriatric health issues which can lead to many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, and dementia. All these carry along with it a potential decline in quality of life, health care expenses; a larger amount of disability. An early identification of risk factors, along with treatment using due medication coupled with non – pharmacological treatment using physiotherapy were analyzed with evidence in a Ten year follow up of a subject with cerebral small vessel disease. Outcome of the research can be beneficial for geriatric subjects and to further the continuation of the findings of the research.

Cerebral small vessel diseases, with risk arising from ageing, hypertension, and diabetes can better be medically diagnosed treated and duly followed up as it could lead to cognitive decline, dementia, falls physical dysfunctions resulting physical and psychological challenges lowering an elderly subjects quality of life. A holistic intervention, including regular physiotherapy can do a larger extent can minimize progression CSVD as well be beneficial by maximizing functional independence among the subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Neurological Manifestation in COVID-19 Patients in Gezira COVID-19 Isolation Centre

Abdallah Faisal, Osman Amir, Alaaeldeen Attaallah, Moawia Elbalal, Abdallah Abd AL-Kareem Gibriel

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i430187

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in December of 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China. In addition to respiratory symptoms, reports are emerging of neurological manifestations of SARS‐CoV‐2

Objective: To assess the neurological manifestations in COVID-19 positive patients.

Methods: A cross sectional, prospective, descriptive, hospital based study included 106 COVID-19 patients in Gezira COVID-19 Centre during the period from June to September 2020. Data regarding demographics, clinical history, presentations, laboratory investigations, neuroimaging and outcomes were collected.

Results: 106 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, 67(63.2%) were males and 39(36.8%) were females, their mean age was 68±4.3 years and most of them 58(54.7%) aged above 60 years. The main respiratory symptoms of COVID 19 were dyspnea in 66(62.3%), fever in 59(55.7%), cough in 50(47.2%) patients. The non specific neurological symptoms of COVID-19 were headache in 29(27.4%), dizziness in 9(8.5%) and syncope in one (0.9%) patient. Symptoms of COVID-19 related to cranial nerves such as change in smell (n= 87; 82.1%) and dyskinesia (n=80; 75.4%) were the most common neurological manifestations encountered. Focal neurological deficits were TIA in 2(1.9%), intracranial hemorrhage in one (0.9%) and transverse myelitis in one (0.9%) patient.

Conclusion: The study showed that neurological manifestations of COVID-19 were common and mostly olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions among Sudanese subjects. Also, COVID-19 could be a risk factor for stroke and transverse myelitis. The study suggest that objective olfactory and gustatory may be needed to determine their clinical significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Junior Doctors and Nurses towards the COVID-19 Disease in a Tertiary Care Centre in North India- A Questionnaire Based Study

Puneeta Gupta, Rohit Raina, Yasir Majid, Khushboo Mir, Anil K. Gupta

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i430189

Background: Resident or junior doctors and nursing staff make up the backbone of any public health care facility more so in cases of centers affiliated to teaching hospitals. Resident physicians have the most prolonged contact with patients as they represent the first communication interface between the attending physician and the patient. Similarly, the nursing staff has a critical role in patient care. Therefore, to minimize the morbidity and mortality due to Covid-19, it is important to be fully informed and compliant with measures to contain Covid-19.

Objectives: To assess the perception of the junior doctors and nurses regarding the various aspects of Covid-19 disease.

Methods: A preformed structured questionnaire with closed end questions was sent to the study subjects using the electronic media. In this study, questionnaire was sent to the convenient sample of 250 persons (100 junior doctors or residents and 150 nurses) working in the clinical departments of the hospital, from July 20 to 27th, 2020. This questionnaire was prepared after literature reviews based on information collected from CDC Atlanta, and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), New Delhi and consisted of three sections: the demographic data, the knowledge and practices sections. The data were collected through anonymous, self-rated questionnaire that was distributed to all participants over the internet (WhatsApp and email).

Results- The questionnaire was sent to 250 persons (100 junior doctors and 150 nurses)  working in the clinical departments of the  hospital, out of which,139 responded comprising 58 (41.73%)    junior doctors and 81 (58.27%) nurses. Overall, 79.14% (n= 110) had sufficient knowledge regarding the disease and majority (94.96%) was   practicing safe measures. In univariate logistic regression analysis of various variables with knowledge, the qualification was only variable which was found to be more significantly associated as far as knowledge and practices were concerned (junior doctors as compared to nursing staff).

 Conclusion- Adequate knowledge apart from defining day to day behavior of health care workers, also prepares them for coping strategies in cases of crisis in critical situation like the our world is experiencing now.

Open Access Review Article

Axonal Demyelination Leading to Neurologic Impairment: A Review Study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Lekpa K. David, Efe E. Komoni

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i430185

Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system auto-immune condition signaled and marked by inflammatory action which leads primarily to demyelination resulting in neurologic impairments. This condition is more common in genetically-disposed individuals and individuals who have had a history of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection

Aim: The study's aim is to examine recent knowledge on the etiology and clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis, as well as diagnostic testing and recent management options that are being explored to improve the living conditions of people living with Multiple Sclerosis.

Method: This review article focuses on research studies that have relevant, up-to-date and current therapies employed in the management of individuals living with Multiple Sclerosis. It also includes research studies that take a look at Multiple Sclerosis from the viewpoint of the caretaker

Results: In this review, it can be seen that the most common clinical manifestation include cognitive impairment, fatigue, psychiatric impairments. The prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis is closely associated with a history of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection as well as genetic predisposition. Pharmacological therapy has been proven to reduce the incidents of a major relapse but hasn’t been advised for patients with a mild relapse. Physical therapy has been proven to be effective when individualized but this is not cost-effective. It has been advised for patients with a mild relapse and for patients undergoing pharmacological therapy, however there is a drawback – physical of therapy can only be administered by very qualified professionals and there is a scarcity of these professionals.

Conclusion: Physical Therapy in conjunction with pharmacological therapy, with further improvements, can drastically improve the quality of lives for people living with Multiple Sclerosis.

Open Access Review Article

Assessment of Hearing Acuity among Commercial Motorcyclists (Okada Riders) in the Main Campus of Abia State University Uturu Abia State Nigeria

C. D. Ubani, Eme E. Osim, D. C. Ejiofor

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i430188

Two hundred motorcycle operators who had lasted for at least one year in the vocation constituted the test population. At the same time, the control group was derived from the staff and students of Abia State University, Uturu, who were sex and age-matched and exposed to low noise levels. Results showed that the noise levels at the operational location of the test population (commercial motorcycle park) was significantly (P<0.001) higher than that recorded at the control site (classrooms and environs). The study revealed that the hearing threshold of the right and left ears of the test group was significantly (P<0.001) higher than that reported for the control group at all the frequencies tested for both air and bone conductions. It was also revealed through this study that the frequency of symptoms associated with high levels of noise was significantly (P<0.001) higher in the test group (motorcycle operators) compared to their control counterparts (staff and students of ABSU). It was also deduced from the study that while 75% of the test population had impaired hearing acuity, 45% of the same case was recorded for the control population. The frequency of symptoms associated with persistent exposure to excessive noise levels was higher in the test subjects than in control. In conclusion, it was established through this study that commercial motorcycle operators within the main campus of Abia State University, Uturu are exposed to excessive noise levels which predisposes them to hear impairment.