Open Access Minireview Article

Lifestyles and their Influence on Sleep Disorders

Shashi K. Agarwal

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i330182

Sleep is a complex physiological event that occupies nearly one-third of human life. Poor sleep adversely affects several bodily systems. Prolonged sleep deprivation can lead to premature death. Adequate sleep duration and sleep quality are important for a healthy life. For most adults, sleep duration of 7 to 9 hours is healthy. Going to sleep rapidly, sleeping undisturbed through the night, and waking up refreshed are important qualities that should accompany an ideal sleep duration. The determinants of sleep duration and quality are diverse and include several physical and mental health factors. Lifestyle factors also play an important role. The five major lifestyles that adversely impact human health are smoking, obesity, excess alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise, and an unhealthy diet. These can also disturb sleep duration and sleep quality, leading to sleep disorders. This manuscript provides a narrative review of the various interactions between these lifestyles and human sleep.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diabetes in the Context of Stroke (Local Study)

Magda Mostafa, Mohamad Aladlany, Mohamad Sherif, Mohammed Abbas

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i330173

Background: Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), including stroke, are considered as a high burden heath issue around the world. Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for stroke that affects both severity and outcome.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate cerebral stroke in diabetic patients and the impact of diabetes mellitus on the severity and outcome of all types of strokes.

Patients and Methods: This study included 500 patients with the first attack stroke who were classified into two groups; Group A: 404 diabetic patients & Group B: 96 non-diabetic patients. All patients were diagnosed clinically and with base line CT (Computed Tomography) brain and stroke severity was evaluated by NIHSS within 24 hours of admission.

Results: The mean NIHSS in the diabetic cases was 10.35 ± 2.51 which was statistically significant higher as compared with the non-diabetic cases (7.25 ± 1.02) (P <0.001). The percentage of cases with infarction stroke was higher in the diabetic group, however it did not detect major dissimilarity between the 2 groups.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular complications including cerebral strokes occur in higher rates in diabetic patients as compared with the non-diabetic. The outcomes of cerebral strokes were worse as compared with the non-diabetic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Age, Gender, Mobile Phone Usage and some Cognitive Functions among the Nigerian Students

Lekpa K. David, Josiah S. Hart

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i330174

Introduction: Advanced mobile technology especially mobile phones provide useful and convenient means for individuals to communicate and access the internet anytime and anywhere. However, electromagnetic field (EMF) energy from the mobile phones has been mentioned to hamper neuronal activity and cognitive function in humans.

Aim: This research was therefore undertaken to determine the relationship between age, gender, mobile phone usage and some cognitive functions among the Nigerian students.

Methodology: This study used datafrom500 students randomly selected from populations in University of Port-Harcourt. Different ages specified by the respondents through structural.

Questionnaires were used. Data obtained from the retrieved questionnaire were analyzed using multiple STATGRAPHICS for the descriptive statistics. While SPSS (IBM Amos V21.0.0, USA) was used for the inferential statistics.

Results: The results revealed that, there was no significant association between age and smartphone ownership (P>0.05). However, for gender, there were significant distributional differences in males (38.5%) and females (29.4%) (P=0.022), as well as stress caused by phone usage (males=76.8%; females=89.7). Correlations of cognitive function variables revealed significant relationship between all the cognitive functional variables.

Conclusion: Distraction was found to have a significant relationship with stress (P=0.033). Therefore attachment to use of smart phone among youths should be advisably minimized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parents' Stress and Children's Psychological Problems during the COVID-19 Outbreak in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Maitham Jaber Aljaber, Maria Mahdi Alqadeeb, Jassim Hijji Alsaleem, Sadiq Fadhel Al Ameen, Ahmad Ibrahim Alhashem, Safa Ibrahim Alzahrani

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 13-28
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i330176

The first outbreak of (COVID-19) was in the Chinese city of Wuhan at the end of December 2019 in the form of acute pneumonia. COVID-19 is a serious and highly infectious disease that affected 245,621,992 cases worldwide, leading to a dramatic loss of everyday lifestyle and negatively impacting people's psychological status. This paper shows Parents' Stress and Children's Psychological Problems during this pandemic.

Objectives: This work determined the psychological impacts of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on parents and children.

Methods: Parents who have children aged between 4 and 16 years old (n=424) completed an online questionnaire using QuestionPro and gave written informed consent. The questionnaire was distributed through social media (WhatsApp, Telegram ) from December 6th to January 5th, 2020-2021. We excluded all responses that came from outside Saudi Arabia. Also, we excluded participants who did not have children; if the parent had more than one child, they were asked to report on one child only. Parents described the difficulties they faced, the parent-child dyadic stress, and their children's behavioral and emotional complications during the pandemic. The participants filled the depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Dass21) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scale.

Results: There were significant impacts on the mental health of the public. Our findings demonstrated that the COVID-19 outbreak had remarkable psycho-social effects on children and their parents.The results showed that younger parents were more affected than older parents,Q6 (r = 0.150, p<0.01), DASS stress (r = -0.266, p<0.01), DASS anxiety (r = -0.201, p<0.01), and DASS depression (r = -0.265, p<0.01),but there was no significant psychological impact of having COVID-19. Those who had relatives who died from COVID were at a higher risk of depression (r=0.006, p<0.05). Having a child diagnosed with mental illness seems to have increased the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress of parents. There was a significant association between parents' mental health and their children's psychological adjustment.

Conclusions: Quarantining is stressful, especially for parents who also have work and school obligations. This circumstance puts parents at a greater risk of distress and might prevent them from being supportive parents. This, in turn, can lead to psychological symptoms in children. Governmental actions should consider the implications of lockdown on families and their mental health.

Recommendation for Future Research: since this study had only focused on one child if parents have more than one with a limited number of participants, we recommended that further research be carried on a larger sample size to see whether there are any similarities in the findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Internet Addiction among Clinical Medical Students of a Nigerian Private University

Marcia M. Ihekaike, Maryam Y. Shehu, Maureen Makama

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i330183

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of internet addiction among undergraduate clinical medical students of a Nigerian private university.

Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos campus, Plateau state, Nigeria, between May and July 2021.

Methods: We included 383 (147 males and 236 females, age range 18 – 49 years) clinical medical students of Bingham University. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire which included questions about socio-demographic factors, the pattern of internet use and the standardized Internet Addiction Test questionnaire developed by Dr Kimberly S. Young in 1998. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between internet addiction and various risk factors.

Results: Out of 402 students who were administered questionnaires, 383 completed the questionnaires giving a response rate of 95.3%. Of these, 145 (37.9%) were mildly addicted to the internet, 30 (7.8%) were moderately addicted and 1 (0.3%) was severely addicted to the internet. The mean age of the study participants was 22.7 ± 2.7 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (P = .002), and having trouble sleeping (P = .002) were significantly but negatively associated with the development of internet addiction while hours spend on social media (P < .001) was significantly and positively associated.

Conclusions: Internet addiction is an emerging disorder in this era of almost global access to internet facilities.