Open Access Original Research Article

Neuropsychological Deficits in Children with Epilepsy in Ghana: A Study at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

Rona Bioh, Ebenezer Badoe, Kokui Dziedzom Klutse, Regina Durowaa

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/39142

Epilepsy may be associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. The study examined the neuropsychological deficits (language skills, attention skills and executive functioning) associated with epileptic children. The role of medication compliance on the neuropsychological deficits was also assessed. Seventy-two participants consisting of 36 epileptic patients visited the neurological clinic at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (children’s department) and 36 healthy control group from West African Basic School were selected to complete the Digit Span Tasks, Kilifi Naming Test (KNT), Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). An analysis was done using Pearson correlation and the MANOVA. Findings of the study indicated higher deficits in language skills, attention skills and executive functioning among epileptic patients compared to healthy control group. Medication compliance was found to enhance the deficiencies associated with attention, language skills, and executive functions among epileptic patients. Findings suggest that though epilepsy (seizure) is associated with higher neuropsychological deficits, compliance with medication decreases the deficiencies associated with epilepsy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caregivers Burden as Risk Factor against Quality of Life of Caregivers of Cerebral Palsy Patients: Moderating Role of Social Support

Kokui Dziedzom Klutse, Florence Naab

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/39050

The consequences of living with a chronic condition such as Cerebral Palsy (CP) do not only affect the child but other members of the family. However, researchers have neglected the caregivers in their quest for the consequences of the disorder. The present study investigated the impact of caregiver’s burden on quality of life (QoL) of caregivers. The role of social support in ameliorating the negative consequences of the caregiver’s burden on QoL of the caregivers was also assessed. One hundred and thirty (130) caregivers in two government hospitals and two Non-governmental agencies were conveniently selected to complete the Caregivers Burden Inventory (CBS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Support (MSPS) and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Pearson correlation and regression analysis were the statistical tools used for data analysis. The findings revealed that caregiver burden has a significant negative correlation with QoL of caregivers. Social support moderated the relationship between caregiver’s burden and QoL. The implication of the findings for nursing practice and informal caregiving are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypovitaminosis D Showed Gender and Seasonal Variations in Saudi Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Osama A. Abdel-Salam, Mohammed El-Sherif, Zakaria M. Ahmed, Amir Monir Ali, Wael Hamza Kamar, Amr Abdelzaher

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/38724

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune, demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. Vitamin D is an immunomodulating factor with potentiality to prevent and treat MS.

Objectives: To estimate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) in MS patients and to evaluate its seasonal variation and gender dependence.

Patients and Methods: All patients underwent evaluation by using the Neurological Rating Scale (NRS), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). All patients had radiological work-up and gave two blood samples, one at winter and the second at summer for estimation of serum 25-OH-D levels.

Results: The study included 82 patients. Wintertime serum 25-OH-D levels were significantly lower compared to summertime levels in both sexes with negative significant correlation with age and home stay duration, but showed positive significant correlation with being employed. The duration of home stay was a sensitive predictor for low wintertime serum 25-OH-D levels in both males and females, while age and being unemployed in males and being Saudi and unemployed in females were specific predictors for low wintertime serum 25-OH-D levels. The female, age and long duration of home stay were significant predictors for low wintertime serum 25-OH-D levels. Wintertime serum 25-OH-D showed positive significant correlation with both NRS scorings in both males and females, while showed negative significant correlation with EDSS scorings in both sexes. Conclusion: Serum vitamin D levels showed seasonal and gender dependence. Also, it could predict MS progression manifested by activity and disability scoring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histoarchitectural and Behavioral Characterization of the Prefrontal Cortex of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Male Wistar Rat and Neuroprotective Role of Virgin Coconut Oil

J. A. Olanrewaju, S. Y. Olatunji, J. O. Owolabi, O. S. Fabiyi, U. E. Ukonne, A. B. O. Desalu

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/35218

Aims: This research is aimed at investigating the possible effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Histomorphology of the prefrontal cortex of type 2 diabetes male Wister rat.

Study Design and Methodology: Animals used for this research experiment was 32 male Wistar rats, and were grouped as follows;

Group A- Control group received water and feed ad libitum.

Group B – Received 0.6ml of Virgin coconut oil for 56 days

Group C – Received High-fat diet and 35 mg/kg of streptozotocin for 3days

Group D – Received High-fat diet ad libitum for 56days, 35mg/kg of streptozotocin for 3 days and then 0.6ml virgin coconut oil for 28 days.

The body weights of the animals were measured every week using a weighing balance. The neurobehavioral analysis was carried out using Barnes maze to measure spatial learning and memory. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at the end of the experiment and the tissue removed for histological procedures which include: Haematoxylin & Eosin, and Cresyl fast Violet.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out at Department of Anatomy Ben Carson School of Medicine Babcock University Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria and the experiment started on the 1st of February and ended on the 14th of March, 2017.

Results: Diabetes mellitus group lost a significant amount of weight, But the Virgin Coconut oil group animals added a significant amount of weight which suggests that VCO helps improve appetite.

The diabetes mellitus group had the highest latency in the Barnes maze test while the Virgin Coconut Oil group had the lowest primary latency.

Normal histological features of the Control and VCO treated (control) groups did not show any observable altered panoramic morphological presentation of the PFC layers. VCO treated group showed slight degenerative changes (yellow arrows) and STZ group showed induced degenerative changes in the cortex and was characterized by fragmented pyramidal and granule cell layer with observable pyknotic cells.

Conclusion: Diabetes affected the prefrontal cortex negatively while virgin coconut oil seems to neutralize the adverse effect and tried to restore the integrity of the prefrontal cortex.


Open Access Original Research Article

Medication Related Factors of Adherence and Attitude to Medication among Outpatients with Bipolar Disorder in Uyo, South-South Nigeria

Jombo, Henry Effiong, Alphonsus Udo Idung

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/39752

A high level of medication adherence is required for effective treatment of bipolar disorder due to the chronic progressive nature of the illness requiring maintenance treatment.

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of medication non-adherence of people with bipolar affective disorder and explore the roles of attitude to medication and medication related factors in promoting treatment adherence.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on a sample of one hundred and twenty six out-patients with bipolar affective disorder. Adherence to medication was assessed on the basis of patients’ self report. Socio-demographic parameters, attitude to medication and medication related variables were collected and compared between adherent and non-adherent participants. Logistic regression analysis model was used to determine predictors of treatment non-adherence. 

Results: The mean age of participants was 34.4±9.84 and 69.0% were males. Prevalence of medication non-adherence was 56.7%. Factor that significantly associated with medication non-adherence were high cost of medication (x2=25.8, P<.001). By multiple regression analysis, factors that independently predicted non-adherence to treatment were: a lack supportive marital union (OR=7.42,P=.009), poor attitude to medication (OR=0.06 P<.001), high dosing frequency of medication (OR=0.18,P=.05) and high side effects burden of medication (OR=19.52,P=.04).

Conclusion: A high prevalence of treatment non-adherence was found in a sample of outpatients with bipolar disorder in a mental health service in Nigeria. Psycho-educational Interventions and measures that reduce treatment cost are required to improve medication adherence.