Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Misperception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among the Primary School Teachers of Vadodara District, Gujarat, India

Anupsinh H Chhasatia, Lakhan R Kataria, Induben R Kataria

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230168

Background and Aim: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders of childhood. Teachers can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, teachers must have explicit knowledge about ADHD. Teachers are seen as one of the most valuable sources of information concerning the referral and diagnosis of ADHD. They also have the responsibility for creating an environment conducive to academic, social, and emotional success for children with ADHD. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge and misperceptions of ADHD of primary school teachers in the Vadodara district of Gujarat, India.

Materials & Methods: Total 491 school teachers participated in the study. The Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS) along with a demographic questionnaire was used as the survey instruments to collect data. Descriptive statistics and correlation tests were used to analyze the data.

Result: Results indicated that teachers’ knowledge of ADHD was insufficient. A significant difference in knowledge was found between Urban & Rural (0.00429); Gujarati & English medium school teachers (p=0.0013); Government & private school teachers (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Lack of knowledge & prevalence of misperception is obvious in primary school teachers who are the first responders of such patients (kids). Improving teachers’ standards & understanding can help significantly in early diagnosis & improving the outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Psychiatric Evaluation of Morbidly Obese Patients

Asmaa Reda Elsayed Elshazly, Mohammad Abdelhakeem Seleem, Mohamed Hamdy Abo-Ryia, Adel Abdel-Kareem Badawy

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230169

Background: Obesity is becoming an important issue for health promotion. The World Health Organization estimated that around 1.5 billion adults were overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2) and about 500 million people were obese (BMI 30 kg/m2) in 2008. The relationship between obesity and mental health is also considered important. In a community-based study, obesity was positively associated with several mental disorders, especially mood disorders and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study is the assessment of current and lifetime psychiatric disorders among morbidly obese patients.

Methods: This case control study was conducted on 60 participants from outpatient clinic of GIT surgery unit and community. All participants were subjected to: Body weight and body mass index, Psychiatric interview for diagnosis of psychiatric disorders by Arabic version of MINI, Scale for diagnosis of Bulimia nervosa by Shokeer, Scale for diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa by Shokeer, Binge Eating Disorder Screener-7, Eating attitude test, Hamilton Depressions Rating Scale and Hamilton anxiety scale.

Results: There was a significant increase in anxiety in patients with morbid obesity compared to control group. There was a significant difference between both groups showing the high prevalence of depression in patients with morbid obesity. Based on EAT test, there was a significant prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in patients group compared to none of control group. A screening test for the presence of Binge eating symptoms revealed significant increase of symptoms in patients’ group.

Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are prevalent in morbidly obese patients and are associated with significantly worse quality of life. In addition, morbidly obese patients had significantly worse physical and mental health relative to control group from general population. High rates of psychiatric disorders among morbidly obese patients seem to be the rule rather than an exception.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring Anger in Medical, Dental and Paramedical Post-graduate Students of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara, Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Anupsinh H. Chhasatia, Lakhan R. Kataria

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230170

Background: Medical, dental and paramedical post-graduate students are an essential part of multi-specialty teaching institutes where resident doctors are the ones who come in the first contact with the patients. In this study emotion of residents was measured through their anger. Anger has negative impacts on daily life, doctor-patient relationships. Throughout the post-graduation program, students experience stress and burn out.

Aim: The study was conducted with an aim to measure the level of anger amongst the post-graduate medical, dental and paramedical students at Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Materials and Methods: After obtaining informed and written consent, 349 subjects were assessed through a semi-structured proforma and clinical anger scale to assess the level of anger. It was a cross-sectional single interview study. Enrolment of participants done for the tenure of 1 year from 2013 to 2014 and results assessed. At the end of the study, all CAS (clinical anger scale) parameters compared medical, dental and paramedical groups. Data analyzed through the SPSS v16 software package; One way ANOVA and independent t-test was applied.

Results: The overall anger was higher among post-graduate students. Post-graduate medical students had higher anger compared to paramedical post-graduate students. Female participants scored significantly lower on clinical anger compared to male participants. Post-graduates doing MD/MS were having significantly higher anger than post-graduates of MDS (p=0.002), MPT (0.000). Married participants scored lower on clinical anger compared to unmarried participants.

Conclusion: Overall anger is high in medical post-graduate students which have negative implications on doctor-patient relationships and patient care can get compromised so it is necessary to find the ways through which we can lower the anger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suicide Ideation and Its Risk Factors among Secondary School Adolescent in Ebonyi State, South East, Nigeria

Lois N. Omaka-Amari, Christian O. Aleke, Jude N. Nwafor, Eunice N. Afoke, Patricia C. Ngwakwe, Ifeyinwa M. Okeke, Okocha Yusuf Item, Saheed Olaide Dauda, Onyechi Nwankwo

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230171

Background: Globally, suicidal behaviour is seen as a growing public health problem, However, little is known about the suicide ideation and its risk factors among secondary school adolescent in Ebonyi State. Suicidal thought negatively impacts the quality of life, physical, and mental well-being of the students. However, research on suicide ideation among students in low- and middle-income countries are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore suicide ideation and its risk factors among secondary school adolescent in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was conducted to assess 399 secondary school adolescents in Ebonyi State between January to May 2021. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 399 participants. However, three hundred and ninety-four (394) were properly filled and used for the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.

Results:  The findings indicated that student with suicidal ideas, 68.3% are in stressful situation, 65.7% has been absence in school for 3 days consecutively, 62.7% have been disappointed by boy/girl-friend, 59.9% feel disappointed from academic performance, 58.4% have been sad or depressed most of the time, 55.6% have been lonely, and 52.3% felt so sad in a way that the situation was unbearable. The result further shows that the major risk factor of suicidal ideation among secondary school students are cultism (71.3%), alcoholism (56.9%), poverty (61.7%), drug use disorders such as (drug addiction, drug dependence, tolerance) 228 (57.9%), and mental illness (54.8%). Other risk factors identified are mental illness 216 (54.8%), sexual harassment/assault (51.8%), unemployment (51.8%), physical assault/bullying (51.8%), and family history of suicide (50.8%).

Conclusions: The study concluded that suicide ideation among students was high and recommended among others that the Nigeria ministry of health both state and federal in collaboration with school management should develop a guideline on how to screen and manage factors associated with suicide ideation among secondary school adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Givers Feel the Heat, Too: Experience of Burning out under Fire of Psychological Distress among Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic

Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole, Adetunji Obadeji, Mobolaji Usman Dada

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230172

Background: Burnout is considered a condition of great public concern due to its biopsychosocial consequences which include poor quality of life. Healthcare providers have been described as high-risk population for experiencing burnout. Psychological distress is also considered a strong predictor of experience of burnout among healthcare workers who are burdened with the demand of the healthcare system. This is particularly so with healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa. The period of COVID-19 might have impacted on the burden of burnout experienced by healthcare professionals.

Objective: This study was to determine the burden of burnout and its relationship with psychosocial variables among healthcare workers in a tertiary health care facility.

Methods: The sample for this study was from a population of healthcare workers in a tertiary healthcare facility in southwest Nigeria. The questionnaire comprised three sections: information on socio-demographic work-related characteristics of the respondents; Maslach-Burnout-Inventory (MBI), and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) used in screening mental distress among the respondents. Student t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the means scores of respondents on both the MBI and K-10 scales.

Results: A total of 214 healthcare workers with mean age of 36.49±9.05 participated in the study. Seventy-six (35.5%) of the respondents had high burnout level on MBI. There was statistically significant difference in the mean score emotional exhaustion subscale of burnout experience for gender The mean score on emotional exhaustion dimension in doctors was significantly higher than the nurses. Emotional exhaustion correlated negatively with respondents’ years of experience at work (r = -0.181, p = 0.008). Thirty-seven (17.3%) of the respondents suffered mild to severe psychological distress as indicated by their scores on the Kessler scale of psychological distress.

Conclusion: The study brought to the fore the relevant correlates of burnout in the high-risk group of essential healthcare providers.