Open Access Minireview Article

Stigma Linked to COVID-19

Dooshanveer C. Nuckchady

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i130144

When it is safe to do so, medical professionals should not delay the treatment of patients who present with respiratory difficulties. Stigmatization of such patients can result in the unnecessary deferral of emergency therapy; this may lead to fatalities that could have been avoided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-treatment Depression and Anxiety Disorder in Men with Cancer of the Prostate in South Western Nigeria

Adegun Patrick Temi, Dada Mobolaji Usman, Idowu Ademola, Omonisi Abidemi Emmanuel, Oluwole Lateef Olutoyin, Obadeji Adetunji

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i130146

Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the pre-treatment prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression in men with cancer of the prostate.

Study Design: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration:  The urology unit of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study period was from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2019.

Methodology: A total of 46 consented male participants recently diagnosed with cancer of the prostate (CAP) were assessed for depression and anxiety disorders using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, an 8-item International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) and a quality of life questionnaire (BS).

Results: Forty-three and half percent (43.5%) of the participants suffered depression; anxiety disorder occurred in 21.7% of the participants. Only 2.2% of the participants had anxiety disorder without depression, while 23.9% had depression without anxiety disorder. Significant level of poor quality of life (QoL) was found among participants with depression and anxiety disorder. Having one psychiatric morbidity was associated with having another. Age of participants and other sociodemographic parameters were not associated with psychiatric morbidity.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of anxiety disorder and depression among patients with cancer of the prostate. Assessment of these disorders should be included in the management of patients with prostate cancer to enhance early detection and prompt treatment for better patients’ clinical outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Specific C-Reactive Protein in Prediction of the Early Outcome of Primary Intra Cerebral Hemorrhage

Khaled Eltoukhy, Mohamed Gomaa, Yasmin Ibrahim, Mohamed Saad

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i130147

Background: Primary intra cerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has high rate of disability and death. Many factors was supposed to be predictors of the outcome. The significance of measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to predict the outcome is uncertain, and data have been controversial. The objective of our clinical study was to determine the relationship of hs-CRP levels with bad outcome. The authors tested if (independent of confounding factors) hs-CRP levels was elevated on admission (< 24 hours after ictus). Fifty patients with acute spontaneous hemorrhagic stroke, within 24 hours of onset confirmed by CT brain were admitted at neurology department, Mansoura University Hospital from June 2017 to September 2018. Age and sex cross-matched 50 healthy persons were studied as control group. Patient and control groups were subjected to full history, general and neurological examination, GCS on admission, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission, ICH score and Canadian scale on admission and after 30 days, Venous Blood samples were taken within 24 hours of onset and tested for routine laboratory investigations (liver function, serum creatinine, CBC and blood glucose) and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein level using Enzyme Immunoassay Test Kit. Computed tomography (CT) brain was repeated 72 hours later. Multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate associations of hs-CRP concentration and ICH outcome. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used for survival.

Results: This study revealed that Hs-CRP is significantly higher in patient group (9.3 mg/l) when compared to control group (0.68 mg/dl) with p value < 0,001. There was statistically significant correlation between NIHSS and hs-CRP levels but there was no statistically significant correlation between hs-CRP levels and stroke outcome.

Conclusion: Taking these covariates into multivariable analysis revealed that there is correlation between hs-CRP and hemorrhagic stroke but it cannot be used as a predictor of its outcome.

Open Access Review Article

Speech Fluency Disorders: A Review of Studies Conducted Over the Past Five Decades (1970-2020)

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Ali Mubarak Aldossari, Abdulhameed Abdullah Alhabeeb

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-28
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i130143

Background: Speech fluency disorder(SFD), a common disorder is reported in all age groups of people but most commonly in children around the world.

Objective: This study aimed to review critically several aspects of SFD, specifically epidemiological parameters, etiological foundations, clinical and treatment perspectives.

Methods: Electronic searches of relevant data published (1970-2020) in PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases were made using the Boolean operators and keywords and following iterative process 194 papers selected for this review.

Results: Speech fluency disorder presents in a variety of forms including acquired neurogenic and psychogenic stuttering is a complex, challenging neurological disorder. SFD is determined by diverse biopsychosocial and cultural etiologies, commonly afflicts male children at age 2-3 years compared to their counterparts (4:1 ratio). SFD manifests a variety of signs and symptoms, and up to 85% children who stutter improves spontaneously with or without intervention. Childhood developmental stuttering (CDS) persists in 1-2% of adults and persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is again male-gender condition. Persons who stutter (PWS) are managed by non-pharmacological especially speech therapy and pharmacological interventions in particular dopamine antagonists. Gender, early intervention, chronicity, severity, language skills, and comorbid conditions mainly determine the prognosis and outcome of stuttering.

Conclusion: Extensive data concerning different perspectives of SFD is published globally, and projected better understanding of most speech disfluencies. Nonetheless, research need to be conducted to develop and provide better quality services to all PWS and to reduce the discrimination against PWS around the world.

Open Access Review Article

Technology and ITS Influences in Adolescence: A Literature Review

Kássia Silva Oliveira, Sabrina Luzia Alves de Souza, Aline Rezende Faria Pimentel, Daniela Ponciano Oliveira, Maysa Gloria Oliveira, Marilza Alves Oliveira, Vanessa Mendes de Oliveira Mota, Nathalya Barros, Alanne Letícia Lima Silva Oliveira

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i130145

Currently much has been discussed about the use of technologies and the impacts of the excessive use of them by adolescents. Current adolescence has been increasingly connected with the technological world, and consequently, behaviors that were previously not perceived or often recognized, are seen, for example, the development of technology-related addictions. Thus, the present study aims to discuss the consequences of the indiscriminate use of digital technologies by adolescents. This research is bibliographic, being developed from other studies already produced on the subject. The main results stand out: family conflicts resulting from distancing and lack of dialogue; the predominance of superficial relationships and false intimacy and the illusion that anything is possible; learning difficulties arising from internet dependence, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit.