Open Access Original Research Article

Appraising the Neurobehavioural Toxicity Potential of Aqueous Methanol Leaf Extract of Tapinanthus globiferus Growing on Azadirachta indica

A. M. Umarudeen, M. G. Magaji

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i230123

The high prevalence and disease burden of anxiety disorders against the paucity and liabilities of existing anxiolytics indicates a need for the discovery of additional/new anti-anxiety agents. However, it is necessary to further screen these new/putative anxiolytic compounds/extracts to rule out the unwanted neurobehavioural toxicities inherent in the existing anti-anxiety drugs. Aqueous methanol leaf extract of Tapinanthus globiferus growing on Azadirachta indica host tree has previously demonstrated significant (p<0.05) anxiolytic effects in mice. This study, therefore, set out to counter-screen this extract for locomotion-suppressant, acute amnesic, sedative (myorelaxant) and hypnotic effects using standard mouse behavioural and biochemical paradigms. The leaf extract (150, 500 and 1500 mg/kg) did not cause significant (p>0.05) alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination/balance, sleep onset or duration, but dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05) increases (63.28±5.63, 65.63±4.12 and 69.18±3.69) in novel object recognition indices of extract-treated compared to 51.54±4.03 and 61.06±2.91 scores in diazepam- and aqua-treated mice, respectively. These findings indicate the aqueous methanol leaf extract is mostly devoid of the evaluated neurobehavioural toxicities and may possess short-term memory enhancement property in mice. These findings may justify the traditional use of Tapinanthus globiferus extracts for memory enhancement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Caregivers of Children with Heart Diseases in Nigeria

Eze U. Chikezie, Chika O. Duru, Frances S. Okpokowuruk

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i230125

Context: Caregivers of children with heart diseases are faced with the long term care of these children and may suffer psychological illnesses as a result.

Aims: To determine the prevalence and determinants of depression among caregivers of children with heart diseases attending two Out-patient clinics in South-South Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving the use of the revised Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD-R) questionnaire. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS 22.0.

Results: Ages of the participants ranged from 24 to 59 years with a mean age of 37.49 years (SD 6.973) and majority were female (79.9%). The overall mean CESD-R score was 8.61 (SD 16.18), ranging from 0 to 60. There was a significant difference in the CESD-R scores between male and female participants (t=2.362, p=0.02) with females scoring higher than males (10.24± 17.69  and 2.15± 3.13) respectively. Overall, depression was found among 23(17.1%) participants. Depression was significantly associated with the female sex (x2=7.006, p=0.009), a history of a mental health illness in the past (x2=66.496, p=0.029) and the marital status of the participants (x2=19.776, p=0.05). No significant relationship was found between depression and age, religion, tribe and educational status (p>0.05), history of medical illnesses (x2=53.006, p=0.538) or type of heart disease the children/wards of the participants were being managed for (x2=8.274, p=0.902).

Conclusion: The rate of depression among caregivers of children being managed for congenital and acquired heart diseases in this study is significant. It is recommended that caregivers of children with congenital and acquired heart diseases are routinely given relevant psychosocial support to prevent the development of depression. Routine screening for depression and appropriate intervention for those who meet the criteria is also recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Playing and Its Importance in the Child Psychoanalytic Therapeutic Process

Daniela Ponciano, Ellen Fernanda Klinger, João Victor Ponciano, Thamires Reis Amorim, Deusimar Noleto Soares

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 12-16
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i230124

When it comes to playing, there is the impression that this is something recreational and fun; however, for psychology and psychoanalysis, this goes beyond recreational lines. Playing has a significant value in human development. This study sought to show the importance of playing in the child's life and in the therapeutic process from the perspective of the psychoanalyst. For psychoanalysis, playing is used as an instrument of evaluation and intervention, allowing the analyst to monitor the child's emotional development. We understand the child's playful activity as an expression of their desires, traumas and the elaboration of their conflicts.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Febrile Seizures in Children

V. Thadchanamoorthy, Kavinda Dayasiri

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i230126

Background: Febrile seizures are a common, yet benign neurological disorder and characterized by convulsions associated with fever in childhood due to the effect of fever on the immature brain. All treating clinicians must understand the nature and evaluation of this benign condition.

Objective: To provide up-to-date knowledge on febrile seizures and their evaluation.

Methods: A search was conducted with key terms “febrile seizures” or “febrile convulsion” in various databases and writings. The literature included clinical trials, descriptive and observational studies, meta-analyses, and randomized control trials. 

Results: Febrile seizures occur between the ages of 6 months to 5 years in all ethnic groups. The exact mechanism has been still unknown although several etiologies have been proposed including genetic and environmental factors. Febrile seizures can be either simple or complex. Febrile seizures generally occur within the first day of fever but rarely happen after 24 hours. Most of the time, febrile convulsions are short-lasting and self-limiting. The diagnosis is mainly based on the clinical description, and investigations have a limited role. Children less than one year of age with suspicion of bacterial infection need lumbar puncture to exclude meningitis. Management mostly depends on control of fever and the treatment of underlying conditions which precipitate fever. Some children can have prolonged convulsions which need anticonvulsants to abort an acute attack. Otherwise, long term prophylactic anticonvulsants have an insignificant role in the prevention of recurrences of febrile seizures. Physical methods also play an insignificant role. As the condition commonly carries a favorable prognosis, unnecessary interventions should be avoided. Since febrile seizures recur in a significant proportion of children, they may bring needless fears and anxieties in parents. However, proper health education for parents by health care personnel might alleviate the anxiety and improve the quality of life of children with febrile seizures.

Conclusion: Febrile convulsions are benign and self-limiting. Continuous use of anticonvulsants to prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures is not endorsed. Intermittent prophylaxis at the time of fever is also not routinely recommended. Both physical methods and antipyretics have limited value in the prevention of febrile seizures.

Open Access Review Article

Psychological Counseling in Contemporaneity: A Psychoanalytic Perspective

Daniela Ponciano Oliveira, Ellen Fernanda Klinger, Gisele Alves Rodrigues, Alanne Letícia Lima Silva Oliveira, Dennis Martins Adriano, Luís Filipe Bonaparte Milhomem, Kaffilla Alves Botelho, Keytianny Alencar de Oliveira, Vanessa Mendes de Oliveira Mota, Talita Pinheiro Aguiar, Maysa Gloria Oliveira, Kássia Silva Oliveira

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i230127

Psychological counseling, as a contemporary clinical practice, presents itself as a modality concerned with the model as if the new psychic demands are configured and, above all, focused on respecting the historical horizon of meaning in which the one who addresses his request for help is inserted. Within the counseling process in the approach of psychoanalysis, through clinical listening, the objective is to make patients rescue their narratives by becoming protagonists of their history, enabling them to enter a desirous world. Thus, it is believed that psychological counseling has been bringing benefits to the community in general, through the expansion of the possibilities of clinical listening, which has become a possible reference in the public service.