Open Access Minireview Article

Care Strategies for the Elderly with Alzheimer's Disease: Integrative Literature Review

Viviane Ferraz Ferreira de Aguiar, Dayara de Nazaré Rosa de Carvalho, Daniele Melo Sardinha, Jaqueline Dantas Neres Martins, Rafael Everton Assunção Ribeiro da Costa, Carla Sena Cunha, Celice Ruanda Oliveira Sobrinho, Fernanda Araújo Trindade, Rakel Daiane Costa da Silva, Ivone de Melo Sousa, Dandara de Fátima Ribeiro Bendelaque, Kateley Stefany da Costa Castro, Andréia Dias Grijó de Oliveira, Raphael Resende Gustavo Galvão, Lorena Nayara Alves Neves, Nancy de Souza Felipe de Nazaré, Suzanne Lourdes Souza, Mônica Custódio do Couto Abreu Pamplona, Elisa da Silva Feitosa, Ivonete Vieira Pereira Peixoto

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430111

Objective: To investigate care strategies in older people with Alzheimer's Disease, in the 2014-2018 historical series.

Methodology: Integrative Literature Review was conducted in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Latin American Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and Nursing Databases (BDENF) databases.

Results: 10 articles were found and analyzed using IRAMUTEC software. This recognized the separation of the corpus into 10 initial context units (ICU), with the emergence of the following categories: 1) Family dynamics and care; 2) Nursing care for the elderly with Alzheimer's disease; 3) Geronto-technologies and their use for the elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

Conclusion: The disease interferes in the ability to meet the basic needs of the elderly, thus the need for specific care arises, and it is essential that the nurse outlines his therapeutic plan also to the caregiver and the elderly.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Qualitative Analysis of Psychosocial Profile of Juvenile Offenders and Exploration of Their Perception towards Delinquent Behaviors

Plabita Patowary, Rejani Thudalikunnil Gopalan

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430110

Juvenile delinquency or juvenile offending generally means the failure of children to meet certain obligations expected of them by the society. The study aimed for qualitative analysis of psychosocial factors which played a crucial role in exhibiting the delinquent behavior of juveniles and also explored the perception towards their offences. Cross sectional research design was used and thirty juveniles within the age range of 10-17 years involved in delinquent activities were selected by the use of purposive sampling method. Out of 30 juveniles, fifteen of them had committed heinous crimes like rape and murder and the remaining fifteen juveniles had committed non-heinous offenses like burglary, theft, kidnapping, physical assault and cybercrime. The qualitative analysis found many factors like poor tolerance level, anger management and school performance, media influence, low socio-economic status, presence of illness in the family and crime in neighborhood as risks for juvenile delinquency. It was also noticed that juvenile offenders had poor sense of responsibility, understanding or comprehension and awareness related to the delinquent act. Majority of them attributed their delinquent act to the external factors and denied having any positive feelings towards the victim. The exploration of risk factors and offenders understanding and perception toward crime would help in prevention and intervention programs. Implication and limitations of the study were discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Religious Mosque Leaders (Khateebs): Awareness, Perceptions, Practices and Attitude towards Mental Health, Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

Abdulhameed Abdullah Alhabeeb, Abdulelah Ishaq Khayat, Adnan Ahmed Makkawi, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430112

Background: Mosques are the most holy places in the eyes of Allah-Exalted and Glorified, and the religious mosque leaders (Khateebs) who read 15-20 minutes Khutbah prior to Friday Prayers have great knowledge in religion of Islam and are considered the peace-building leaders through delivering the pertinent Friday sermons around the world.

Objective: This online consenting cross-sectional survey explored the mental health awareness, perceptions, attitudes and practices of Khateebs of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This survey used 14-items self-designed culturally competitive questionnaire and sociodemographic proforma to tap religious mosque leaders’ knowledge, perceptions, practices and attitude towards mental health.

Results: Majority of mosque leaders were middle aged with higher education and extensive experience as a model of true interlocutor (Khateeb). Their knowledge and practices revealed were replete with religious and spiritual healing approaches but religious mosque leaders did not completely overlook the role of psychiatric medications and mental health professionals in the management of mentally ill persons. However, religious mosque leaders showed some negative attitudes towards patients with mental disorders, and recommended 10 corrective guides including integration of mosques and religious leaders into mental health system.

Conclusion: Despite mosque leader’s good mental health literacy, they need further training to plug certain loopholes traced in their mental health literacy. Researchers should conduct further similar research overcoming the caveats of this survey not only in Saudi Arabia but also globally in Muslim world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Pattern of Mental Illness among School Age Children Seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital: A Six Year Study

A. K. Nkporbu, B. A. Alex-Hart

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430113

Background: A sound mental health in school age children is critical for good academic achievements and a better transition from childhood to adulthood. The increasing prevalence of mental illness in school age children, especially the adolescents, is of great public health concern globally.

Aim: The aim of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence and pattern of mental health disorders among school age children seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).

Methodology: Consent for the study was obtained from the research ethical committee of the hospital. Medical case notes of all patients aged 5 years to 18 years seen in the clinic by Consultant Child and adolescent Psychiatrists from 2015 to 2019 were retrieved and thoroughly reviewed. Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical package and results presented using descriptive and analytical methods.

Results: Out of 7,856 patients seen in the Neuropsychiatry Clinic within the period under review, 408 (5.2%) were children aged between 5 to 18 years. Male was higher with 232 (56.9%). The most prevalent mental illnesses were anxiety disorders, 58 (14.2%), depressive illnesses 46 (11.3%), schizophrenic illness 44 (10.8%), mental and behavioural abnormality secondary to substance abuse (MABD) 43 (10.5%), bipolar affective disorders 37 (9.1%), while conversion disorders was the least with 3 (0.7%).

Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among school age children seen in UPTH and often impair the emotional wellbeing of this population. A detailed and well worked out plan of management is needed to provide optimal mental health services to children and adolescents. Well-coordinated mental health services should be inculcated into the School Health Programme in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychoactive Substance and Psychopathological Symptoms among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescents

Deborah O. Onisile, Bede C. Akpunne, Oluseyi A. Alakija

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430114

Aim: Abuse of psychoactive substances among secondary school adolescents is a huge problem globally. This study examined the influence of psychoactive substance use on psychopathological symptoms among secondary school adolescents in Ede, Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional survey design.             

Place of Study: Redeemer’s University Ede Osun state, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-six (496) secondary school adolescents (mean age 15.7 years) were purposively selected from five secondary schools in Ede metropolis. Substance Abuse Inventory (SABI) and Awaritefe Psychological Index (API Form-X) were used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Four hypotheses were tested using a Regression Analysis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Independent Sample t-test and at 0.05% level of significance.

Results: A high prevalence of psychopathological symptoms was observed among the participants. Psychoactive substance use was observed to jointly and significantly predict psychopathological symptoms (R² = .106, p = .001). Sex has significant influence on manifested psychopathological symptoms with female adolescents reporting higher mean scores on insomnia, intellect disorder, heat disorder, mood disorder, alimentary track disorder and general psychopathology. Age was observed to be inversely correlated with psychopathological symptoms. Significant difference was found between drug users and non-user on severities of psychopathological symptoms.

Conclusions: This research finding indicates a high prevalence of psychopathological symptoms; that the use psychoactive substance is significantly linked the psychopathological symptoms and that age of involvement in psychoactive substance is also a significant risk factor for psychopathology among adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Interleukin 6 and C-reactive Protein as Inflammatory Markers among Patients with Substance Use Disorder in Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Kaduna

S. Y. Olatunbosun, B. O. P. Musa, A. J. Yusuf, O. R. Obiakor, A. A. Elfulaty

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430115

Aim: This research aimed to determine the relationship between substance use disorder (SUD) and the biomarkers of inflammation: (C-reactive protein: CRP and Interleukin-6: IL-6) to investigate inflammatory reaction among SUD patients.

Study Design: This is a cross sectional comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital (FNPH) Kaduna, North-western Nigeria which serve as a referral center for patients with psychiatric disorders from all the North Western states and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja between August 2018 and August 2019.

Methodology: The study population was drawn from SUD patients who were positive to urine drug test. The serum CRP and IL-6 levels of 180 SUD patients (study group) were compared with the serum CRP and IL-6 levels of 180 apparently normal individuals who do not have history of substance abuse.

Results: The median and interquartile range of the ages of both the study group and the control group were 30 (23 – 40) and 33.5 (24-41) years respectively. The study population consist of 162 (90%) males and 18 (10%) females with median ages and range of 30.5 (15 – 72) and 26 (14 – 40) years respectively. A significant increase in IL-6 in SUD was observed (P = .0001) but no significant difference observed in CRP at 95% confidence interval (P = .73). It was observed that there was a strong positive relationship between IL-6 and CRP (r = 0.6646); P = .0001) in SUD patients.

Conclusion: IL-6 was significantly higher in people with SUD and as CRP levels increases IL-6 increases. This suggests that there is a level of inflammatory reaction in substance use disorder patients. Thus both serum CRP and IL-6 level can be considered as biomarkers of inflammation in patients with SUD.

Open Access Review Article

Psychosomatic Phenomenon According to the Stages of Development

Daniela Ponciano, Ellen F. Klinger, Fernanda B. Chiacchio, Daniely S. Prado, Davi A. Barros, Warly N. Araujo, Maria Aparecida R. Arruda, Gianfrancesco Gurgel

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2019/v13i3-430116

The psychosomatic term, report to the item of psychological origin of certain organic diseases, affective repercussions of the state of physical disease on the individual and studies of mind-body relationships with emphasis on the explanation of somatic pathology. The term can also be understood, as an ideology about health, falling ill and about health practices, is a field of research on these facts and, at the same time, practice. Thus, the objective of this work is to discuss, from a literature review, the psychosomatic manifestations that occur in the development phases in the context of the psychology area. The study is methodologically based on the literature review. For this work, the bibliographic search of articles indexed to the VHL Portal (Virtual Library in Saude) and in the Web of Science was carried out. The disease is often an escape from a conflict situation or appears due to the need for attention and affection, need to be cared for. The psychosomatic approach decreases treatment time, avoids unnecessary complementary tests and abbreviates the patient's suffering.