Open Access Original Research Article

The Will Club for Stuttering and Modus Operandi of Training Adult Persons Who Stutter: A Descriptive Analysis, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Ali Mubarak Aldossari, Abdulhameed Abdullah Alhabeeb, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-27
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130163

Background: Speech fluency disorders determined by a variety of complex biological and environmental interactions are common problems of children, adolescents, adults and older adults around the world and need therapeutic interventions for improving the quality of life of those who stutter.

Objective: This descriptive study aims to mainly focus on training course and techniques along with various associated challenges faced by persons who stutter.

Methods: Training module was tailored and customized by five trainers including psychiatrist, speech therapist, speech pathologist, psychologist and behavioral therapist to meet the therapeutic needs of chronic adult stutterers who were invited to take 2-week training course concerning stuttering.

Results: The will club for stuttering has well defined mission, vision, values and goals, modus operandi and techniques, and well appreciated by trainees/participants in their success stories. Stuttering is associated with many challenges, which were identified proactively and discussed using training exercises and techniques/methods during training course that comprised of preparatory, application, confrontation, and sustainability phases.

Conclusion: Two-week training course directed towards adult stutterers facing  many challenges which were discussed extensively and trainers found their effective solutions through exercises and  multi-dimensional techniques dispersed in several phases of the program module.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Gender Differences in Depression- A Cross-Sectional study

Tushar Agravat

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130164

Background and Aim: Major depression in both women and men is a debilitating disorder that disrupts relationship and daily lives and affects nearly 10% of general populations. The aims and objectives of this study were to determine the gender differences in major depression with respect to following: Demographic characteristics, Clinical manifestations, Stressful life events, Risk factors.

Materials and Methods: Total of 100 patients was included in the study. All the included patients meet the criteria for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) diagnosis of major depression. The included patients were interviewed at the department of Psychiatry, B. J. Medical College & civil hospital Ahmedabad. Based on the Life Events Scale by Holmes and Rahe (1967), its Indian adaptation PSLE (Presumptive stressful life events scale) was done by Gurmeet Singh (1983). The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS IX version.

Results: Their ages range from 18 to 70 years. Most of the patients were married, were from urban background, and nuclear family. On Hamilton Depression rating scale when the statistical analysis was done, there was no significant difference between males and females. Men had higher mean life events score than women but this was not statistically significant. In female, there was significant positive correlation between number of life events in one year and severity of depression as well as impact score during one year prior to onset of depression and Hamilton rating scores.

Conclusion: Male and female major depression patients did not differ as regards demographic characteristics, except that most women were homemakers and men were employed. Number of stressful life events experienced during 1 year prior to onset of MDD was similar. Early insomnia, middle insomnia and somatic symptoms general were more severely present in female patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Non-Psychiatry Residents towards Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study

Tushar Agravat

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130165

Background and Aim: The attitude of Non Psychiatry Post Graduate Residents towards Psychiatry is crucially important because of its influence on impressionable medical students and the large number of psychiatric patients who present to Non Psychiatry Doctors like General Practitioners. Present study was done with an aim to study the Non-Psychiatric Doctor Attitude towards Psychiatry.

Material and Methods: Present study was Conducted at two Major Institute: K. M School Post-Graduate medicine and Research and B.J. Medical College at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. At Both Institute Psychiatric lectures during   1st MBBS, lectures on Psychiatry during final MBBS and 2 week clinical rotation during final MBBS. Modified version of attitude towards Psychiatry questionnaire (Nielsen and Eaton, 1981) was the study instrument. The non- Psychiatry post-graduate students were asked to fill the Questionnaire. Questionnaire consists of 21 statements to be responded with one of the three alternate responses- Agree, neutral and disagree.

Results: Most P.G. thought that Psychiatry is making advancement and most was positive about psychoanalysis. Only 6.6% of P.G.s thought that Psychiatry is unscientific and inexact. With respect of therapeutic efficacy 83.8% would refer emotionally upset family members for Psychiatry consultation. Psychiatrist were considered as unclear thinker by 8% and overly apologetic in teaching. 40% agreed that psychiatrist tended to over analyze human behaviour.27% of P.G.s thought that on an average psychiatrist make less money than other physician.31% of P.G.s viewed that Psychiatry status as low compared to other specialties. 47% agreed that Psychiatry are often rightly seen by others as odd, peculiar and emotionally disturb them.

Conclusion: Non Psychiatry Post-Graduates at a tertiary hospital in Gujarat have a moderately positive attitude to Psychiatry. However some erroneous beliefs are still prevalent among the consultants. The attitude of Non-Psychiatry consultants directly/indirectly affects the development of Psychiatry as a discipline.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relation of Vitamin D Blood Level with Statin-Associated Muscle Symptoms (SAMS)

Thouria Ijdayaat, Khaled Eltoukhy, Maha Hazem, Kefaya Elsyed

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 39-48
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130166

Aims: This work evaluates the vitamin D status in patients with statins- associated muscle symptoms.

Study Design:  A case control prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study:  Neurology Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, between June 2020 and May 2021.

Methodology: Total of 85 participants included in this study, 60 participants of them have chronic Stroke and ischemic heart disease, treated by different kinds of statins and 25 participants were healthy controlled individuals. The 60 patients were 35 males (55%) and 25 females (45%), with age ranging from 40 to 70 years. The 60 participants were divided into two groups: The first group included (30 patients) treated with statins and they did not have Statin-Associated Muscle Symptoms (SAMS).The second group included (30 patients) also treated with Statin and they complained of SAMS. The third group is the control group, which contains the 25 participants who were healthy people. The control group included15 males (55%) and 10 females (45%) with age ranged from 35 to 65 years. Laboratory investigations were conducted on all participants in this study. The participants were subjected to total of 5 laboratory tests, which include: (1) Vitamin D (Enzyme immunoassay method), (2) Total CK (Enzymatic method), (3) Total Cholesterol and Triglycerides (Enzymatic method), (4)High density lipoproteins Cholesterol (Precipitation method), (4)Low density lipoproteins Cholesterol (Freid Wald equation), and (5) C – reactive protein (CRP: Latex Agglutination Method) was done beside elecetrophysiology study ( Needle electromyography (NEMG) was include).

Results: Out of 60 patients the statistical readings of Vitamin D levels for the studied groups, demonstrating a significant statistical difference in Vitamin D levels between patients complaining of statin-associated muscle symptoms group (P≤0.001), and the other groups with lowest mean of (26.30 ±3.75), while patient without statin-associated muscle symptom group had the mean rating of (29.33 ±3.69), and the control group had the highest mean of (30.14 ±3.57).

Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between vitamin D deficiency and statin-associated muscle symptoms. Vitamin D status may play an important role in diagnosis and management of SAMS. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and SAMS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surveying the Level of Knowledge, Awareness and Health Related Risk of Substance Abuse among Students in University of Port Harcourt’s Host Communities

Chigozie Njoku, Nguma Promise Onyewuchi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130167

Background: Substance abuse refers to the use of all chemicals, drugs and industrial solvents that can produce dependence (psychological and physical). It can also be referred to as the repeated non-medical use of potentially addictive chemical and organic substances. There is poor data about the health related risk of substance abuse among students in Nigeria. Hence, this survey was done to determine the level of knowledge, awareness & the health related risk of substance abuse among students and her host communities as an attempt to curb the menace and its effect on students and the entire society at large. 

Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in ALUU Community in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study involved 150 volunteers recruited randomly through a multi-staged sampling technique which included secondary school students, undergraduates and postgraduates who are 13yrs and above residing in ALUU community while those who did not give consent were excluded. The data was collected using self-structured close-ended self-administered questionnaires and data analysis done using SPSS version 25. 

Results and Discussions: The results of the study showed that 98.67% have knowledge of drug abuse, the knowledge of health and social effects of substances of abuse on humans was 96.67%. The most prevalent health/social effects were: memory loss 74.67%, sleeping and eating disorders 67.33%. The results of the study have shown that more than 2/3rd of the participants had good knowledge of drug abuse. Similarly, more than 2/3rd of the participants heard about drug/substance abuse via the mass media. The most abused drug/substance was alcohol, 9 in 10 persons abused alcohol. This goes on to imply that the chance that a student who is resident in Aluu abuses alcohol is 90%. 

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that 98.67% have knowledge of drug abuse, the knowledge of health and social effects of substances of abuse on humans was 96.67%. The most prevalent health/social effects were: memory loss 74.67%, sleeping and eating disorders 67.33%. Peer group, neighbourhood influence, and ‘the only child syndrome’ were the attributed contributing factors to the continual use of alcohol/drugs, even when the health and social effects are well known.