Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Causes and Effects of Drugs and Substances Abuse among Youth: A Case Study of Katsina Metropolis (North West Nigeria)

Nasiru Lawal, Al Mustapha A. Aliyu

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i130117

Aims: To determine the cause, effect and type of drugs commonly abuse among youth in Katsina metropolis.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional design carried out in Katsina metropolis in June to September 2018.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional design was used for the study where by 384 respondents were selected through a purposive and snowball sampling techniques to select the study subject from the study areas. A validated and structured interviewer administered questionnaire (IAQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Findings from the study showed that peer pressure 75(19.5%) and desire for enjoyment 51(13.3%) are the major cause associated with the abuse of drugs by the respondents. The most commonly abused substances by the respondents include Tobacco 112(29.2%), Codeine 68(17.7%) Marijuana (Indian hemp) 55(14.3), and cola nut 17(3.4%) and majority of the respondent perceive negative effect of poor health (madness) 212 (55.2%) as the major effect and aggressive behavior’s 71(18.5%).

Conclusion: The major cause of substance abuse among youth are peer pressure and desire for enjoyment, common effect is poor health and Tobacco is the common abuse drug. It is therefore recommended that Parent should take good care of their children during teenage age and government should control the production and supply of these illicit substances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Analysis of Hospitalizations for Head Trauma in Hospitals of Belém do Pará, Between 2015 and 2019

Brenda Stefany de Campos Chaves, Cássia Oliveira Cabral da Paz, Letícia Gomes de Oliveira, Nirlando Igor Fróes Miranda, Ingrid Tavares de Araújo, Alícia Gleides Fontes Gonçalves, Marineuza Jardim Azevedo, Francisco Luzio de Paula Ramos

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i130118

Objective: The study aimed to describe the epidemiology of cases of hospitalization due to TBI in Belém/PA, between 2015 and 2019.

Methodology: This is a descriptive epidemiological study, with a retrospective approach, whose data were obtained through consultation in the Notifiable Diseases Information System.

Results: Were 2.103 cases were reported, of which (75, 3%) were male, 80,7% without race/color information, coming largely from the emergency department, with predominance of admission to a Municipal Emergency Hospital (78, 2%).

Conclusion: The high incidence of TBI in certain groups, associated with the present need to carry out complete care records, reinforces the need for health information, serving as an epidemiological basis and for the management of services. Therefore, it is extremely important to know the possible causes and act in the planning and elaboration of strategies that aim to prevent the numerous cases of TBI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mental Health First Aid Training: A Study of Community Members’ Pre and Post-training Responses to a 17-Item Questionnaire

Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb, Haifa Saad Aleshaiwi, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 16-31
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i130119

Background: Mental Health First Aid, an important component of metal health educational programs, targets naive community members, public, allied mental health personnel, and mental health experts with specific reference as to how these trained aiders should help people in crisis or with mental health conditions in the community.

Objective: This study aimed to describe pre-to-post-test assessment of those who were trained in MHFA program.

Setting: National Center for Mental Health Promotion, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Trained mental health professionals organized MHFA courses (n=35) for training self-selected, nonrandomized community members (n=862) who were assessed pre-to-post training by using an adapted 17-item questionnaire for measuring the impact of MHFA course on their mental health knowledge, perception, attitude and practice.

Results: The participants’ responses to questionnaire were varied at pre-and post-test evaluation and 65% of them showed mild to significant positive changes in their responses, and the rest were not affected positively after this course, possibly attributed to multiple factors related to naïve community trainees, advanced questionnaire, short timeline and dissimilar instructors.

Conclusion: Although all participants well received the MHFA courses, 65% of participants’ pre-to-post-test responses improved positively. The preliminary results of this study are not generalizable to the whole community, need to be cautiously interpreted and this research is calling for more studies especially randomized controlled trials in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Auditory Evoked Potentials P50: Pure-tones vs Clicks. There is a Similar Supression?

PhD M.D, Seidel Guerra López, M.D, María de Los A. Pedroso Rodríguez, M.D, Diego Cantero, Gilvan Aguiar da Silva

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 32-39
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i130120

Objective: Clinical application of middle-latency auditory evoked potential (MLAEPs) has been increasing, highlighting the importance of understanding the nature of P50, a component of middle-latency auditory evoked potential. We manipulated stimulus frequency bands in auditory stimuli in order to investigate the nature of P50 in human auditory evoked potentials.

Methods: Two paradigms have been used to obtain P50: one is a conditioning /testing paradigm in which paired of pure tone (1000Hz) are delivered, and the other was presented paired of clicks, both with an intensity of 60 dB sound pressure level above the auditory threshold. A total of 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study among Center of genetic engineering (fifteen man and fifteen women, mean age of 36, 5). All without consumption of caffeine, cigarettes and drugs.

Results: No statistically significant differences occurred between the P50 amplitudes and latencies for the pure tone and those for the clicks.

Conclusions: Our present results indicate that P50 in humans may reflect a feed-forward mechanism of the brain where a preceding stimulus drives sensory gating mechanisms in preparation for a second stimulus, but the contained frequency doesn't influence on the P50. Both types (tones or clicks) can be used in the exploration of patient with this evoked potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among School-age Adolescent

Khalid Astitene, Hassan Aguenaou, Laila Lahlou, Amina Barkat

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2020/v14i130121

Aim: After a traumatic event, the person can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the purpose of the study is to assess the prevalence of PTSD in adolescents in public middle schools of the prefecture of Salé in Morocco and study anxiety and depression which are the comorbid disorders of the PTSD. The survey was carried out from March to June 2017.

Methods: 523 students were selected by the cross-sectional method from fifteen schools that were randomly selected, the age of the students vary between 12 and 17 years. For the survey, standardized questionnaires (the socio-demographic data, the Life Events Checklist, the CPTS-RI (Children's Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index), the STAIY (State Trait Inventory Anxiety Form Y) and the CDI (Children Depression Inventory) were used which were filled in by the students.

Results: The prevalence of PTSD was 70.4% in the students who have PTSD. We found that the prevalence in boys was 46.74%, while in girls it was 53.26%. In addition to that, 81% of students found to be anxious and 51.8% of students have depression.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder among adolescents, there are practical implications for the support and care of these adolescents.