Open Access Original Research Article

Internet Addiction, Problematic Smartphone Use and Psychological Health of Nigerian University Undergraduates

Bede C. Akpunne, Olutope E. Akinnawo

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2018/v12i330093

Aim: This study examined Internet Addiction (IA) and Problematic Smartphone Use (PSU) as predictors of severities of anxiety, depression and psychological distress among university undergraduates in Nigeria.

Study Design: Exploratory /Descriptive survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: Redeemer’s University Nigeria, between April and August 2018.

Methodology: A total of 854 university undergraduates made up of 342 males and 512 females, mean age 20.5 years, were purposively selected from four universities in Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Smartphone Addiction Scale – Short Version (SAS-SV), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used for data collection. 

Results: Observed prevalence of studied variables among respondents are: Internet Addiction (IA) 48.6%, Problematic Smartphone Use (PSU) (47.4%), anxiety disorder (50.6%), depression (49.8%) and psychological distress (47.6%). IA independently and significantly predicted severities of anxiety disorder (R² = .01, p = .025), depression (R² = .057, p = .000) and psychological distress (R² = .105, p = .000). PSU independently and significantly predicted severities of depression (R² = .073, p = .000) and psychological distress (R² = .094, p = .000). However PSU failed to significantly predict severity of anxiety disorder (R² = .00, p = .650) among the participants.

Conclusion: High prevalence of IA, PSU, anxiety disorder, depression and psychological distress exist among the participants. IA is a significant independent predictor of anxiety, depression and psychological distress. PSU is a significant independent predictor of depression and psychological distress but is not a significant predictor anxiety disorder among Nigerian undergraduates.

Open Access Original Research Article

C677T Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Homozygosis and Vitamin Supplement in Migraineur Children

Elisabetta Tozzi, Agnese Onofri, Giulia Iapadre, Martina Mazzilli, Stefano Necozione

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2018/v12i330096

Purpose: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variant C677T has been associated with an increased genetic risk in migraine susceptibility. Individuals with the homozygous genotype show higher levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) [1,2,3].

Methods: Open-label study evaluating clinical trial was performed on 148 children migraineurs among 236 children suffering from headache, admitted to the Headache Regional Centre in l’Aquila (Italy)-Neuropsychiatric clinic, recruited and observed sequentially during the years 2015-2017. 31 patients (16,6% of all the sample) MTHFR homozygous were selected and underwent clinical evaluation of migraine characteristics (frequency, severity of pain and use of acute treatment) at baseline and after a 12 month-period of daily supplement of vitamins B9(2 mg), B6(25 mg), B12(400 mcg). In 20 patients with hyper Hcy (>95° percentile for age) the second collection of blood sample was obtained for Hcy assessment. Diagnosis of headache according to ICHD-III criteria. Statistical analysis is made by Wilcoxon test.

Results: 20 children suffer from Migraine without aura (MwoA) and 11 from Migraine with aura (MA). 86% of children aged >10 years had significantly higher Hcy values compared with controls (p<0.0001). 21 patients (70%), 14 F and 7 M (13 MwoA and 8 MA), have Hcy values > 95°percentile. In all the sample the vitamin supplementation was effective in producing significant reduction in Hcy levels (p=0.0001) and a significant improvement of migraine disability of frequency (p<0.0001), severity of pain (p<0.0003) and use of acute treatment (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: The study results are encouraging and emphasize the importance of a comprehensive therapy in paediatric migraines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Correlates of Postpartum Depression in Osogbo, Nigeria

Abiodun Adejoke Deborah, Abiodun Afolabi Benjamin, Akinsulore Adesanmi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2018/v12i330097

Background: Postpartum depression is the most prevalent postpartum mental health problem. It is associated with subsequent low adherence to child healthcare. In severe depression, especially in the presence of psychotic symptoms, there is a substantial risk of suicide and of infanticide.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, pattern and correlates of postpartum depression among women attending postnatal and infant welfare clinics at a teaching hospital in Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and duration of Study: This study was conducted at LTH, Osogbo Nigeria between September and November 2015.

Methodology: Data were obtained from 220 consenting postpartum women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a socio-demographic questionnaire. All respondents found to be EPDS positive for depression as well as 10% of those negative for depression were further assessed with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) (depression subscale). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The level of statistical significance was set at a p-value of less than 0.05.

Results: Prevalence of postpartum depression was 9.5% using the MINI. Postpartum depression was significantly associated with age (χ2=4.767, p=0.035), suicidal ideation (χ2=17.292, p < 0.01), support from respondent’s partner during pregnancy (χ2= 6.593, p= 0.010), support from partner’s relatives (χ2= 4.403, p=0.036) and number of children (χ2=4.247, p=0.039). Unemployed mothers had significantly higher EPDS scores than those who were employed (F=3.020, p< 0.05).

Conclusion: The prevalence of postpartum depression is high. An increased media campaign about postpartum depression and preventive measures is urgently needed. Screening for depression throughout the perinatal period is important for early diagnosis and prompt intervention in order to improve clinical outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic and Clinical Profile of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy at Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba in Lagos, Nigeria

Dada Mobolaji Usman, Okewole Adeniran Olubunmi, Raji Ayanjide Lukman

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2018/v12i330098

Aims: To obtain sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving Electroconvulsive therapy in a Nigerian psychiatric hospital.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Place and duration: The study was carried out at the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria over a period of 3 months.

Methodology: An extensive review of the hospital records of patients receiving the modified form of electroconvulsive therapy for the first time over a period of eight years was done.  The demographic information, clinical diagnosis and indication for electroconvulsive therapy were retrieved and analysis was done using SPSS 19.

Results: There were a total of 222 cases, ranging from 45 in 2000 to 21 in 2007. Mean age was 31.7 ± 9.65. Male: female ratio was 1:2. Almost 60% of them were single and unemployed. Clinical diagnosis using ICD 10 ranged from schizophrenia (44.8%), severe depression (27.8%), bipolar disorder (15.5%) to puerperal psychosis (8.2%). Indications for electroconvulsive therapy included psychosis (41.6%), severe depressive episode (25.8%), catatonia (23.7%) and manic episode (7.4%).

Conclusion: This study has shown that the use of ECT has declined in the facility over the study periods.  Also, females were twice as likely to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared to males and schizophrenia still remains the most common diagnosis among the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Are Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Migraine Related?

Ahmed Esmael, Mohamed Gomaa, Maha Hazem

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2018/v12i330099

Background: Compression neuropathies have previously been associated with one another. Migraine has not been considered a type of compression neuropathy but, some recent studies found that some types of migraines may be treated by targeted peripheral nerve decompression. So, the association between migraines and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), {the most common compression neuropathy} may exists.

Objective: The aims of this study are to found whether there is a relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome and migraine, and if so to determine the factors causing this relationship.

Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional case control study of 120 patients with CTS in addition to age and sex matched 120 healthy controls. It was conducted at Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt in the period from July, 2017 through June, 2018. All subjects underwent neurological examination, nerve conduction study of median nerve bilaterally, and evaluation according to headache by the International Headache Society, 2016 criteria. Also, the clinical severity of CTS was assessed and calculation of body mass index (BMI) was done. Evaluation of patients by Boston questionnaire form (BQF) {composed of two parts, Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and the Functional Status Scale (FSS)}. Lastly, assessment of patients by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).

Results: Patients had significantly higher rates of migraine headache (28.3 %) either alone (17.5 %) or combined with tension headache (10.8 %) when compared to controls. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied groups regarding the frequency of isolated tension headache. However, the total rate of cases with tension headache (n=43) including those in association with migraine is significantly higher in patients when compared to controls. Patients had significantly higher rates of various grades of symptoms severity. All patients but 17 are functionally affected while none of the controls group is affected. Patients had significantly higher rates of borderline and moderate depression when compared to controls. Univariate logistic regression analysis for predictors of migraine headache in the studied patients shows that, older age (P value = 0.0001), female sex (P value = 0.003), being manual worker (P value = 0.005), obesity class 11 (P value = 0.023), very severe functional severity scale (P value = 0.001), borderline and moderate depression (P value = 0.008 and 0.002 respectively) were significant predictors of migraine.

Conclusion: There is a significant association between CTS and migraine headache. This association suggests the possibility of a common risk factors for development of migraine headache include older age, female gender, obesity, low functional and high symptoms scores and depressive symptoms.