Open Access Case Study

Primary Malignant Melanoma of Brainstem Medulla Mimicking as Cavernoma – Case Report

Adnan Naeem, Fatima Mubarak

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/indj/2018/v12i230092

Aim of this case report is to present a rare case of primary malignant melanoma of brain stem at the region of medulla oblongata mimicking as cavernoma. 40-year-old male presented with vertigo, headache, dizziness for 1 month. MRI showed pear shaped T1 hyperintense lesion at medulla oblongata and predominantly hypointense on T2 with focal area of hemorrhage. Lesion showed diffuse enhancement on postcontrast images. On plain CT lesion was Hyperdense. It was initially reported as Cavernoma. Surgical excision of lesion was done with per-op findings of solid, dark maroon colored lesion with hemorrhage. Histopathology showed neoplastic lesion with abundant melanin pigment deposition. The lesion was finally diagnosed as Malignant neoplasm with features favoring Malignant Melanoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions, Risky Behaviour and Harmful Practices Associated with Adolescent Substance Use in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

Eno E. Ekop, Ifeoma C. Anochie, Ayo Obembe, Kareem I. Airede

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/44854

Background: Adolescence is associated with high-risk behaviour, experimentation with substance use and testing boundaries, putting adolescents at increased risk for exploitation, harmful practices, health challenges and getting into trouble. The perceived effect of a substance on an adolescent can determine its use. This study aimed to identify the perceptions adolescents have towards substance use, the risky behaviour and harmful practices associated with substance use and determine the accessibility of substances among adolescents in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja Federal Capital Territory.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study carried out among secondary school adolescents.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria from May to July 2015.

Methodology: A questionnaire-based study using a multi-stage random sampling method to select the students.

Results: A total of 1,196 adolescents’ questionnaires were analysed comprising of 555 (46.4%) males and 641(53.6%) females. There was a high perception of harm from the use of cigarette, alcohol and Indian hemp among the adolescents and was statistically significant for cigarette use at P= <.001 OR= .104 CI .0371 – .343 and alcohol use at P= 0.01 OR= 9.75 CI 2.971-27.497. The perceived ease of access to licit substances was much higher than that for the illicit substances with the relationship between perceived availability and substance use being statistically significant for all eight substances assessed. Substance use was also found to be associated with adolescent risky behaviour and harmful practices.

Conclusion: More awareness needs to be created on the harmful physical, social and mental effects of substance use while stricter rules and regulations should be enforced to ensure restricted access of substances to adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Correlates of Abusive Behaviours in Upper Egyptian Adolescents: Violence, Sexual Abuse Victimisation, and Substance Abuse among Blood Group Types Subsets

Raouf M. Afifi, Ashraf E. Saad, Mostafa M. Sadek, Sameh Zaytoun

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/45409

Deviant behaviours, namely physical violence, sexual abuse; illicit drug use are globally spreading risks. They tend to be socially concealed, rendering evaluating their impact upon population subsets difficult.

Aim: Analyse trends and correlates of violence, sexual abuse, and substance abuse victimisation among adolescents in Upper Egypt.

Methods: Youth aged 15-21 were randomly selected and cross-sectioned; and a validated questionnaire was used to achieve study aim.

Results: Out of 1225 recruits, 30.2% were 15-<17, 58.9% were 17-<19, 10.9% were 19-21y old; and 66.0% were male. Half (49.5%) of participants was of a low socioeconomic status (SES). Recognised victimisation rates of violence and sexual abuses were 42.0% and 8.7%, respectively; the prevalence of substance abuse mounted 9.4%. Those 15-<17y old were more liable to violence victimisation than older peers [(181/360) (50.3%), χ2(df=2)=18.6, p<0.0001]. Male participants were at a greater risk for violence victimisation [(400/870) (46%), χ2(df=1)=13.4, p<0.0001]; youths of the lowest SES had a similar tendency, too [(213/487) (43.7%), χ2(df=2)=6.8, p=0.03]. Being a female or of a low SES was associated with a higher sexual abuse incidence [(49/325) (15.0%), χ2(df=1)=25.9, p<0.0001; 52/465 (11.1%), χ2(df=2)=7.9, p=0.018], respectively. Male and the highest SES adolescents were more likely to abuse substance [(72/650) (11.0%), χ2(df=1)=6.5, p=0.011; (41/212) (19.4%), χ2(df=2)=33.1, p<0.0001], respectively. The frequency of substance abuse among AB blood group candidates was higher than among other groups [χ2(df=3)=132.9, p<0.0001].

Conclusions: Abusive acts victimisation is prevalent among Egyptian adolescents in Upper Egypt. Male gender and low SES are risks for physical abuse victimisation; high SES is risk for substance abuse. Prevalence of substance abuse among AB blood type individuals mandates further genetic and haematological research. Influenced by age and socioeconomic circumstances, a dynamic preventive approach guided by massive screening for early detection of risk groups is warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Autism Spectrum Disorder in North-Western Nigeria

M. M. Ahmad, H. Ahmed, J. Baba, J. F. Legbo, A. M. Nauzo, M. Omar, A. A. Tahir

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/46690

Aim: To determine the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases in a tertiary hospital in Sokoto, over a decade.

Study Design: A descriptive study on the clinical presentations and associated co-morbidities in children with ASD as seen in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics (Neurology Unit), UDUTH Sokoto, Nigeria, between July 2008 and June, 2018.

Methodology: Children with documented features of ASD (as described in DSM-5) over the study period were enrolled. Relevant information was extracted from the hospital records. The DSM 5 diagnostic criteria for ASD was applied, and all cases whose clinical records conform to the DSM 5 criteria, and having complete clinical records were included. Patients with incomplete data were excluded. Co-morbid conditions were identified based on history and examination records. A descriptive analysis of the data was done and presented as frequencies and proportions.

Results: Out of the 1267 cases seen in Paediatric Neurology clinic over the study period, 18 cases exhibited the symptoms of ASD based on the DSM 5 criteria, giving a hospital prevalence of 1.4%. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.6 ±2.5 (range 2 to 13) years, with a M:F of 1:1.6. All the cases had the core symptoms of impaired social communication, impaired social interactions and restricted/stereotypic behaviours that started before 3 years of age. Majority (55.6%) of the cases were diagnosed after the age of 5 years. Identified co-morbidities include hyperactivity (55.6%), seizures (33.3%) and motor delays (27.8%), occurring alone or in combinations. Only 4 (22.2%) of the cases had no identifiable neuro-developmental co-morbidities.

Conclusion: Autism spectrum Disorder is one of the neurodevelopmental disorders among children with Neurologic problems in our centre and is commonly associated with other co-morbidities. There is need to create more awareness about ASD so as to enhance its early recognition and appropriate interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Morpho-Functional Changes in Cerebellum of Lead II Acetate Exposed, Ocimum gratissimum Administered Wistar Rats

A. A. Aigbiremolen, M. A. Omoirri, K. E. Asemota, S. E. Iloh

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/46550

In the human nervous system, available studies assert; that the Neuroglia cells (special neurons in the brain) may provide structural support and/or regenerative tendencies (gliosis) to damages within the circuitry. This study conducted to investigate the activity of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract on the regenerative functions of the cerebellum of lead II acetate exposed wistar rats. A total of twenty five (25) Wistar rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats each. With Group one (1) receiving standard rat diet and water only (control group), Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively got 252.98 mg/kg/day of aqueous O. gratissimum leaves extract for 35 days, 180 mg/kg of lead II acetate for 21 days, 180 mg/kg of lead II acetate for 21 days with continued treatment of 126.49 mg/kg of O. gratissimum leaf extract for 35 days, and 180 mg/kg of lead II acetate with continued treatment of 252.98 mg/kg of O. gratissimum leaf extract for 21 days. Rats were then euthanized (after treatment period), with blood samples obtained and assayed for biochemical changes. Histological and stereological examinations were also conducted for cerebella tissue. Upon comparison with control (group I), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) returned a significantly high GSH value for group one rats as compared to other groups. Even though huge degeneration was seen for group III rats, Cerebella Malonaldehyde, Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione and Catalase levels, were relatively low across groups IV and V as against the control. Histological section through group I rats showed cerebella purkinje layer appearing deeply basophilic, with a characteristically condensed Nissl granule, thus describing a normal architecture of the cerebellar cortex. Pyramidal and granular axonic and dendritic cells were also seen to have embedded neuropils within group II rats. Conclusively, Study has shown that O. gratissimum extract consumption may be potent for low to minimal anti-oxidant effect, and regenerative tendencies (gliosis) on the cerebellum. More sophisticated but similar studies are recommended for other areas of the brain.

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 08th  June-2020. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn