Open Access Original Research Article

Burnout Syndrome and Anxiety Disorders among Hospital Nurses in a Tertiary Health Center in Nigeria

Olajide Abayomi, Babalola Emmanuel, Amoo Gbolagade, Onifade Peter, Olajide Kofoworola

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/39640

Most studies on mental health at workplaces have focused mainly on depression as a frequent cause of occupational disability among nurses. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of burnout syndrome and anxiety disorders and their associated psychosocial factors among nurses. The study was conducted among nurses at the Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-five nurses were assessed in two stages. The first stage involved using a Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and GHQ-12. The second stage involved interviewing nurses with Structured Clinical Interview Schedule for DSM IV Axis I Disorder (SCID) Anxiety module. The prevalence rates of burnout syndrome subscales are 51.3% for emotional exhaustion, 84.7% for depersonalization, and 24.5% for personal achievement while that for GAD was 4%. Socio-demographic and work-related variables significantly associated with burnout syndromes were younger age (χ2=7.24, p=0.027), low educational achievement (χ2=8.01, p=0.005), stressful job perception (χ2=7.75, p=0.005), junior nursing cadre (χ2=9.18, p=0.01), and having a great deal of involvement in report writing. These findings draw attention to the need for holistic approach to the management of burnout and GAD among health care professionals in addition to developing effective prevention strategies to protect their mental well-being and improve their effectiveness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lifetime Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Correctional Officers in a Prison Formation in Abeokuta Ogun State Nigeria

O. A. Sowunmi, P. O. Onifade, A. Ogunwale

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/40900

Earlier studies of Correctional Officers have already shown the relationships between work environment and mental health. However, most have not evaluated the prevalence of specific psychiatric morbidity among officers who work in the prison environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of DSM-IV/ICD-10 Axis I psychiatric disorders among correctional officials in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria. A census of all Correctional Officers was conducted at the first stage, during which they were screened for psychiatric morbidity. Those screened positive and 15% of those who were negative were evaluated for definite psychiatric morbidity. The most common mental health disorder was Generalized Anxiety Disorder followed by Major Depressive Disorder, while the least common disorders were Bipolar Disorder (Mania), and Social Phobia. Correctional Officers are at risk of experiencing psychiatry morbidity and as such mental health strategies including education and screening should be integrated into the health management culture of the prison organization for the purpose of prevention and early intervention.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-Sectional Study of the Impact of Antipsychotic Medications on the Hematological Profile of Patients with Schizophrenia in a Tertiary Health Facility in Uyo, South-South, Nigeria

Henry E. Jombo, Timothy A. Ekwere

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/40894

Objective: Antipsychotic drugs have been implicated as a potential cause of haematological toxicity. However, the seemingly mild and asymptomatic presentation is perhaps responsible for it not being frequently investigated. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the effect of antipsychotic drugs on the hematological profile of patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 100 participants i.e. 60 subjects and 40 controls. 2.5 mls of blood was obtained from each participant for determination of full blood counts. Clinical data of subjects including their demographic characteristics, classes of antipsychotics, and duration of antipsychotic usage were obtained from their respective case files. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows Version 17. Significant level was set at p<0.05.

Results: The mean of the hematological parameters including haemoglobin concentration, absolute neutrophil counts and platelet counts were significantly lower among the subjects than the controls p=0.001, 0.04 and 0.001 respectively. Similarly, there was statistically significant differences in the mean platelet count, MPV and PCT of subjects and controls with p<0.001, 0.001 and 0.04 respectively. However, there was no association between the mean age and gender of subjects and absolute neutrophil count p=0.24 and 0.46 respectively.

Conclusion: Significant reduction in haematological parameters of subjects compared to the controls may suggest some degree of haemato-toxicity most likely attributable to the antipsychotic drug. Furthermore the absolute neutrophil count though significantly lower in the subjects did not show age or sex differences. Therefore, there is need to regularly monitor haematological indices of psychiatric patients during treatment with antipsychotics.


Open Access Review Article

Antipsychotic Medications and Weight Gain: Etiologies, Predictors and Adverse Clinical Consequences

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Dalal Salem Al-Dossari, Sara Osama Salem, Fuad Khulaif Alharbi, Osama A. Alkhamees, Saud M. Alsanad

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/40876

Background: First and second-generation antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed to millions of psychiatric patients with psychosis around the world. Antipsychotic medications are associated with a variety of adverse effects including weight gain. Objective: This review aimed to describe etiologies, predictors and morbidity and mortality associated with weight gain induced by antipsychotics in a psychiatric population.

Methods: Electronic searches (2000-2018) of PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were conducted using Boolean operators and keywords. Of all articles retrieved (n=37,987), two independent reviewers identified 105 relevant articles published in English peer-reviewed journals.

Results: In conjunction with other biopsychosocial and cultural risk factors, first and second generation antipsychotic medications are associated with weight gain in psychiatric population having a spectrum of severe mental illnesses. The weight gain linked with multiple predictors was differentially more common during initial intake of all antipsychotics but remained stable or decreased during the longer timeline. The most weight gain associated with a variety of adverse consequences affecting safety of patients was reported with clozapine and olanzapine and the least weight gain was seen with aripiprazole and amisulpiride, and no weight gain with the use of newer drugs especially ziprasidone, lurasidone and paliperidone.

Conclusion: Most antipsychotic medications commonly increase weight gain in patients with psychotic conditions around the world. Consequently, weight gained induced and predicted by multiple paradigms causes a variety of additional potentially adverse effects including medical and psychological conditions and premature deaths in psychiatric vulnerable patients who need close monitoring and appropriate management across antipsychotic treatment trajectories.


Open Access Review Article

Clinical and Biological Perspectives of Non-antipsychotic Psychotropic Medications and Weight Gain

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Dalal Salem Al-Dossari, Sara Osama Salem, Fuad Khulaif Alharbi, Osama A. Alkhamees, Saud M. Alsanad

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2018/41133

Background: Non-antipsychotic medications are frequently used in psychiatric patients with a variety of disorders. However, there is limited research concerning weight gain and metabolic changes in mentally ill population.

Objective: This review aimed to critically describe non-antipsychotic psychotropic (NAP) medications and their impact on weight in the psychiatric population. Also, the biological and psychosocial mechanisms of weight gain or loss attributed to NAP and antipsychotic medications are also described in this paper. Methods: Electronic searches (2000-2018) of PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were conducted using Boolean operators and keywords. Large numbers of articles were retrieved, and two independent reviewers retained 85 articles published in English peer-reviewed journals.

Results: Only a few non-antipsychotic psychotropic medications prescribed to psychiatric population produce overweight and some metabolic changes, but most of them cause minimal weight gain, or they are weight-neutral and weight-loss. Variable results are reported concerning biological mechanisms attributed to genetics, individual vulnerability, diagnosis and pharmacology of antipsychotic and non-antipsychotic psychotropic medications.

Conclusion: Unlike antipsychotic medications, non-antipsychotic psychotropic drugs cause the least weight gain mediated by multiple mechanisms, but mostly without meeting salient features of metabolic syndrome. Further studies are needed to explore metabolic changes and underlying mechanisms concerning psychotropic drugs given chiefly to mentally ill patients around the world.