Open Access Case Study

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome- A Rare Cause of Refractory Epilepsy

Prerna Malik, Anil kumar D. Gulia, Rajinder Garg, Preeti Singh

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 162-166
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2014/8675

DDMS is a rare syndrome characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia and mental retardation. The characteristic radiologic features are cerebral hemiatrophy with homolateral hypertrophy of the skull and sinuses. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is one among the syndromes associated with refractory epilepsy. We report a case of DDMS in an 18 year old female who presented with seizures, hemiparesis of the right side and mental retardation. Computed tomography on this patient assisted in making a diagnosis of DDMS.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Integration Capacity is Diminished in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients with Poor Insight But Not in Patients with Intact Insight

Stephanie Mueller, Katarina Stengler, Ina Jahn, Martin Grunwald

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 141-152
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2014/8102

Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess sensory integration ability of OCD patients with poor and good insight using a Haptic Test for adults.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, between October 2010 and Mai 2013

Methodology: Results of 23 OCD out patients (7 poor insight, 16 good insight) and 23 healthy control subjects, matched for age and sex were compared. Visual-haptic integration was measured using the Haptic Figures Test (HFT).

Results: The analysis showed significant differences between the groups in their number of errors (F (2,43) = 4.68, p<.05) and mean total exploration time (F (2,43) = 9.00,         p<.005). Post hoc analyses revealed that OCD patients with poor insight made significantly more mistakes and used longer exploration times than OCD patients with good insight and healthy adults.

Conclusion: The results are indicative of the necessity to use differentiated analyses and group comparisons of patients with OCD. The striking results of OCD patients with poor insight may indicate a deficit in sensory integration especially for this subgroup.

Open Access Original Research Article

Striatal Synaptosomal Dopamine and Serotonin Cross-talk Synthesis in Aging Rat

Azadeh Mesripour, Manoochehr Messripour

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 153-161
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2014/5681

Aims: The existence of a dopamine (DA)-serotonin (5-HT) interaction in the brain has been validated by numerous studies. Nevertheless, interaction between DA- 5-HT synthesis in aging brain has not been highly considered. The central aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between DA and 5-HT synthesis in rat brain striatal synaptosomes.

Methodology: Male Wistar rats (3 and 30 months old) were killed by decapitation and the brain sriatal synaptosomes were prepared by discontinuous Ficoll/sucrose gradient technique. DA or 5-HT synthesized during an appropriate incubation period was measured by the synaptosomes in the presence of added substrates (tyrosine or tryptophan) and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (pargiline).

Results: Dopamine synthesis in the synaptosomes prepared from young animals was markedly inhibited (about 30%) by the addition of 5 μM 5-HT and increasing 5-HT up to 50 μM caused only a relatively small additional inhibition. However, different concentrations of 5-HT (0-50μM) had little effect on dopamine synthesis of the synaptosomes preparations from old animals. In case of 5-HT synthesis, exogenously added 5 μM DA inhibited 5-HT synthesis in the synaptosomes of both ages by about 40%, whereas with higher concentration of DA (10-50 μM) the rate of inhibition was highly pronounced in the old rats as compared to that of young animals.

Conclusion: It is concluded that DA- 5-HT cross reaction might be considered, where long-term treatment with L-DOPA of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease renders patients experience variations in response and even psychiatric problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interleukin-2 Treatment Induces an Acquired Behavioral Response Pattern (Repetitive Stereotyped Movements) Mediated by Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors

Ankur S. Patel, Steven S. Zalcman

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 175-185
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2014/7284

Interleukin (IL)-2 is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, psychosis) involving an increased expression of repetitive stereotyped movements. However, little is known about the underlying pharmacological mechanisms or behavioral processes. Of further importance, we sought to identify underlying pharmacological mechanisms. We found that dopamine D1 receptors underlie the development of IL-2-induced stereotypic movements while D1 and D2 receptors are required for the expression of IL-2-induced stereotypies. These findings raised the intriguing possibility that IL-2 treatment induced an acquired behavioral response pattern requiring concurrent stimulation of D1 and D2 receptors. Thus, we determined whether stimulation of D1 and D2 receptors following termination of IL-2 treatment would re-instate the expression of repetitive stereotyped movements (i.e., an acquired response pattern). Based on these findings, we suggest that sub-chronic or chronic elevations in peripheral IL-2 levels may produce behavioral disturbances that persist beyond the presence of IL-2 by altering dopamine receptor activity resulting in the acquisition of an abnormal response pattern, and thus increase vulnerability to psychopathological outcomes associated with repetitive stereotyped movements. To our knowledge, these are the first data to identify a process by which a cytokine produces an abnormal response pattern.


Open Access Review Article

Role of 3D FLAIR in Demonstration of Peripheral Lesions of Brainstem and Cranial Neuropathies

Graeme MacKenzie, Avinash Kumar Kanodia, Pheyming Yeap, Jonathan O. Riordan, Richard Stephen Nicholas, Gavin Main

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2014/8190

Aim: We present a pictorial review of 3D FLAIR images depicting its importance in demonstrating the peripheral lesions of brainstem particularly in relation to attachment of cranial nerves and cranial neuropathies and particularly in context of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Discussion: T2 axials and routine 2D FLAIR have drawbacks in depicting the lesions on the peripheral aspects of brainstem. Such lesions are commonly found in MS. The revised McDonald’s criteria (2010) put equal emphasis on periventricular, juxtacortical, infratentorial and cord lesions. Detection of peripheral lesions thus play important role in fulfilling the criteria of dissemination in space and also provide anatomic correlate in several cranial nerve palsies. In clinically isolated syndromes, demonstration of lesions at the site of affected cranial nerves increase diagnostic confidence and exclude other potential disease processes. Ability to show signal changes at cranial nerve attachment can also potentially prevent a false attribution of symptoms to neurovascular compression.

Conclusion: We propose that 3D FLAIR sequence is extremely useful in detecting abnormalities on the surface of brainstem and cranial nerve attachments and should be performed in all patients of MS and cranial nerve palsies.