Open Access Short Research Article

Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment. Family Interactive Dynamics and Psychopathology: What kind of Relationship in Adolescence?

M. Gatta, L. Sudati, M. Sisti, I. Comis, L. Svanellini, A. Simonelli, P. A. Battistella

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 84-91
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/17983

Introduction: This work is an example of empirical research. The aim was to look to the possible transgenerational influence between parents and adolescents attachment bond to their respective parents, infant armonic and/or disarmonic development and functional or dysfunctional family interactions.

Methodology: 40 families with adolescents aged from 12 to 18 years (μ = 14.575, σ = 1.716) coming for a psychodiagnostic evaluation were tested with Lausanne Trilogue Play, Parental Bonding Instrument, Child Behaviour Checklist and Youth Self Report. Hypothesis: a) Is there an association between the adolescent’s perceived attachment relationship with his parents and his psychopathological symptoms? In this case a non parametric test for k independent groups was performed. b) Is there an association between parents-adolescent interactive dynamics and the parents’ perceived attachment relationship with their parents (adolescent’s grand-parents). In this case correlations and non-parametric test for k independent groups were performed.

Results: a) We found significant statistical differences (p < .05) between adolescent psychopathology and the quality of perceived relationship with both the mother and the father. b) we found positive correlations between quality of relationship between the mother and her father (adolescent grandfather) and the scores of some LTP scales concerning normative function; moreover we found negative correlations between the father and his mother (adolescent’s grandmother) and the scores of some LTP scales concerning affective function.

Conclusion: These results underline a significant association between the internal working model of the mother and her ways to interact and manage the relation with her adolescent son; this is a clinical evidence too. Another relevant result is the association between adolescent’s psychopathology and his internal working model. Clinical applications regarding these findings should be taken in account when psychotherapeutically working with adolescents and their families.


Open Access Short Research Article

Pictorial Essay of Cranial Nerves Lesions on MRI Our Experience

Imran Nazir Salroo, Aamir Yousuf, Kousar Sideeq, Waseem Ahmad Shah, Rafiq Ahmad

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 92-101
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/17894

The twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from various regions of brain from anterior to posterior, and are designated as per their attachments to the brain. The various bony channels and foramina in the skull base holds and transmits the cranial nerves along with vasculature. It is essential for all the skull base neurosurgeons and the radiologist to be wise enough with the complex anatomy of skull base for early suspicion and localization of skull base lesion, and for early the uraupectic decision making. In present era for diagnostic purposes, CT and MRI are complementary to each other and are frequently used for localization of lesion. The aim of this Pictorial essay is to demonstrate the cranial nerve lesions through MR imaging, their signal intensity and their extension to soft tissues.


Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Stress Disorder in Palestinian Children in the Gaza Strip

Abdelaziz Mousa Thabet, Sanaa S. Thabet

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 55-65
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/18136

Aim: This study aimed to describe the range of acute traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a sample of displaced and non-displaced children and adolescents in the Gaza Strip.

Methods: This was descriptive analytic study. The study sample consisted of 381 children and adolescents ranging in age from 7 to 18 years. Regarding displacement status, 190 of them were non-displaced (50.1%) and 191 were displaced (49.91%). Ninety-four of displaced children were boys (49.22%), while, 73 of non-displaced children were boys (38.41%). One hundred seventeen of displaced children were girls (61.6%), 97 of non-displaced children were girls (50.8%). Children were assessed by a socio demographic questionnaire, the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale.

Results: The highest frequencies of reported traumatic events for both groups (displaced and non-displaced) were hearing shelling of the area, hearing the loud voice of Drones, and watching mutilated bodies in TV.  However, displaced children reported more traumatic event such as forced to leave home with family members due to shelling, receiving pamphlets from Airplane to leave home at the border area to the city center, threatened by telephone to leave their homes for bombardment of homes, destruction of their personal belongings during incursion. Displaced children reported more traumatic events than non-displaced ones (Mean= 13.6 vs. 9.08). Boys reported more traumatic events. Using the DSM-V criteria, 10.0% of non-displaced children and 18.4% of displaced children had acute traumatic stress disorder. Displaced children reported more acute stress disorder, dissociative, re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms. Traumatic events were associated acute traumatic stress, re-experiencing, and hyperarousal symptoms.

Conclusion and recommendations: This study showed that Palestinian children and adolescents are victims of continuous war and trauma, and will develop new symptoms of acute stress disorder after exposure to war in the Gaza Strip. Such findings highlight the needs for better mental health services for children especially displaced populations who are not able to return to their homes due to the siege, in order to increase their coping abilities and resilience in face of adversities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Profile of Early Onset Psychosis in a Nigerian Sample

Adeosun Increase Ibukun, Bello Abidemi Olubunmi, Ogun Oluwayemi Cecilia, Ijarogbe Grace Temitayo

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 66-74
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/18077

Aims: This study assesses the clinical profile of children and adolescents with psychotic disorders presenting to a psychiatric facility in Lagos, Nigeria.   

Study Design: The study design was a retrospective chart review.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the largest child psychiatric facility in Nigeria, the Child and Adolescent center of the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos, from October to December 2011.

Methodology: Patients (n=168) with early onset psychotic disorder presenting to the facility within a two year period (September 2009 to August 2011) were reviewed. Using a pro-forma containing variables of interest derived from a literature review of the research subject, the case notes of all children and adolescents with psychotic disorder presenting to the facility were reviewed to determine their presentation, clinical characteristics and diagnostic subtypes. Diagnoses were according to the ICD-10 criteria.

Results: Males (56.5%) out-numbered females and the mean age of the sample was 15.3 (±3.6) years. The age at onset of psychotic disorder ranged from 6 to 18 years with a mean age of                14.2 (±2.6) years. Onset of psychosis was described as gradual/insidious by 47% and abrupt/acute by 53%. About one out of five (20.8%) had history of birth complications while 19% had delayed attainment of developmental milestones. Insomnia (49.4%), auditory hallucination (48.8%), irrational speech (40.5%) and aggressive behavior (33.3%) were the most prevalent symptoms. The most common axis I diagnoses was schizophrenia (36.9%), followed by organic psychosis (25%) and acute psychotic disorder (19.6%).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate the need for early intervention in psychosis and planning of services to meet the needs of young people with psychotic disorders in Nigeria. The relative preponderance of obstetric complication and organic psychosis highlights an unmet need for improved obstetric care with consequent reduction in psychosis


Open Access Original Research Article

Prolonged Use of Benzodiazepines for Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly: Quality of Sleep and Related Comorbidities

Igor Munteanu, Tzvi Dwolatzky, Oleg Choumeiko, Roni Peleg, Yan Press

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/17216

Introduction: Insomnia is frequently found in older people, and may be symptomatic of underlying comorbid conditions. The use of drug therapy for the symptomatic relief of insomnia is widespread, with the most common class of agents used for this indication being benzodiazepines.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between comorbidities and the associated use of benzodiazepines among older people living in the community.

Methods: We evaluated a sample of 27 subjects who were using benzodiazepines for at least 3 months, compared to 33 non-users constituting the control group.

Results: Those using benzodiazepines had higher comorbidity, more impaired cognition, greater anxiety, and poorer sleep quality than controls. However, based on a multivariate logistic regression model, only poor quality of sleep correlated significantly with the prolonged use of benzodiazepines (OR=1.96, 95% CI= 1.34-2.85, p<0.01).

Conclusion: This small study strengthens the need to limit the use of this class of drugs in older people with sleep disturbances.