Open Access Original Research Article

Emotional Intelligence, Spiritual Intelligence, Self-esteem and Self Control of Substance Abuse

Somayeh Alaei, Rozita Zabihi, Armindokht Ahmadi, Akram Doosti, Seyed Mehdi Saberi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/33461

Background: This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence and self-esteem, and self-control on men with addiction in rehabilitation centers of Tehran.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study sampling 200 men. From 12 treatment and rehabilitation centers in Tehran, 4 were randomly selected and fifty people from each center aged 20 to 50 with at least two years of addiction history were picked. Instruments used were: Eysenck Self-esteem Scale (ESI), Bradbury-Greaves Emotional Intelligence test, Abdullah Zadeh Spiritual Intelligence test and the Personal Control Scale (PCS).

Results: A positive relationship was found between emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence, self-esteem and substance abuse self-control (r=0.25, 0.21 and 0.24 at a level of confidence =0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Promotion of emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence and self-esteem may prove useful in control of substance abuse in men.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neurobehavioral and Micro Structural Evaluation of the Anti-anxiety Potential of Flaxseed oil Following Rotenone-induced Parkinson’ Disease in Mice

Philemon Dauda Shallie, Bamidele Richard Babatunde, Olugbenga Olawole Olayinka, Damilola Joseph Talabi, Helen Bassey Akpan, Royhaan O. Folarin, Oluwole Ojo Alese, Oluwadamilola Faith Shallie

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/34206

Aim: This study investigated the neurobehavioral and micro structural anti-anxiety potential of flaxseed oil following rotenone-induced Parkinson’ disease [PD] in mice

Study Design: Fifty-six adult male and female mice (Mus musculus) weighing between 23.9-26.3 grams were used for this study. The mice were randomly placed into four groups of fourteen mice each: A (Control; mice pellets), B (Rotenone 3 mg/kg, IP), C (Rotenone + Flaxseed oil 0.3 ml orally), and D (0.3 ml Flaxseed + Rotenone).

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University. Between May and September, 2016.

Methodology: The brains were excised, weighed and appropriate sections taken and processed histology and labelled with H&E, silver and Nissl stains and immuno-cytochemically with GFAP.

Results: The results showed significant (P<0.005) increase in anxiety related activities and neuronal structural derangement, and degeneration of astrocytes in the rotenone-induced Parkinson’s mice, which were counter/ameliorated by flaxseed oil treatments.

Conclusion: In conclusion, flaxseed oil acts as a neuro-protective agent against the insult of rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease, thus it should be further evaluated as a potential therapeutic candidate in the management/treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histomorphological Aberrations Associated with Cannabis and Caffeine Exposure in the Hippocampus of Juvenile Wistar Rats

J. O. Owolabi, A. J. Olanrewaju, S. Y. Olatunji, O. Okoto

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/34165

Cannabis and caffeine are two psychoactive substances often abused. Cannabis is illegal in many countries, yet it constitutes a social menace as individuals still abuse the substance. Caffeine on the other hand is legal and used almost without restrictions in most countries. It is also important to note that adolescence is a critical period of neural and mental development; and the juvenile brain might be typically vulnerable to certain consequences of psychoactive agents use and abuse. Notably, most existing literatures have considered the effects of these substances on the adult and matured brain. The aim of this investigation, therefore, was to assess the effects of caffeine and cannabis use on the histomorphology of the hippocampus of juvenile Wistar rats. Seventy two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into six groups named A-F. The Group A served as the Control. Group B were administered the higher dose of caffeine; Group C were administered the lower dosage of caffeine; Group D were administered the higher dosage of cannabis; Group E were administered the lower dosage of cannabis; Group F were administered caffeine and cannabis combined. Administration was done using suitable oral gavages and the animals were fed ad libitum. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 21 days. The brain tissues were excised; fixed in formal saline and processed using the haematoxylin and eosin staining technique. Evaluation of the histoarchitecture of the hippocampal formation showed that caffeine and cannabis did not produce extensive disruption of the hippocampal; formation and might not be termed deleterious. However, especially at the high doses, they altered individual neurons morphologies and the spatial distribution of the cells in the Cornu Ammonis and dentate gyrus.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Spectrum of Herpesvirus Infections of the Nervous System in Adult Patients in Ukraine: A Prospective Single Center Study

P. A. Dyachenko, A. G. Dyachenko

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/35179

Background: Herpesviruses (HVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that infect humans usually during childhood, followed by a life-long persistence in a latent state in many sites of a body including the nerve cells. After reactivation HVs can affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem very few population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Ukraine.

Objectives: To explore the clinical features and etiology of herpesvirus encephalitis (HVE) in a prospective single center study from January 2014 to January 2015.

Methods: 107 adult patients with confirmed herpesvirus infection and symptoms of possible encephalitis (CNS lesion) were analyzed in the study. CSF and blood contents, antibody for HVs M and G9 antibody classes, and MRI scans have been studied, but the crucial diagnostic sign was the presence of specific viral DNA in the CSF or blood.

Results: 74 (69.3%) out of 107 patients were females, the male to female ratio was 1:2.2. The median age of patients was 36.9 years (range 20-65 years). Most common clinical features were fever, (stiff neck), and focal neurological signs. The genome of HVs was detected in CSF samples obtained from all patients as follows: Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 – 13 (12.1%), Varicella zoster virus – 2 (1.8), Cytomegalovirus – 14 (13%), Epstein Barr virus – 22 (20.5%), Human herpesvirus 6 – 5 (4.7%), Human herpesvirus 7 – 13 (12.1%). Co-infection (≥ 2 HVs) was observed in 38 patients (35.5%). CSF of 27 patients contained two viral DNA, and 11 – three one in various combination. Human herpesvirus 8 was not found.

Conclusion: The most frequently diagnosed infections in hospital based study were Human herpesvirus 5 (EBV), followed by HSV-1/2, CMV, and HHV-7. Significant part of patients (35.5%) was co-infected with two or three HVs. Predisposing factor for Ukrainian population is sex.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pediatric Neurologic Disorders at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in North-Central Nigeria: A 5 Year Review

Emeka U. Ejeliogu, Esther S. Yiltok

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/35249

Background: Neurologic disorders in children are common occurrences in clinical practice; they constitute a major cause of morbidity and disability in childhood. Children with neurologic disorders in developing countries are faced with the added burden of poverty, inadequate health facilities, inadequate community services, poor parental education/awareness as well as lack of facilities for rehabilitative care.

Aim: To describe the pattern of neurologic disorders at a pediatric neurology clinic in a tertiary healthcare facility in north-central Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a retrospective descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric neurology clinic, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January 2011 and December 2015.

Methodology: We reviewed the clinical records of all children seen at the pediatric neurology clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January 2011 and December 2015. We extracted relevant information from the clinical records. We analysed the data obtained with EpiInfo version 7.2, results were expressed as descriptive statistics.

Results: There were 8,307 consultations at the pediatric neurology clinic within the study period, accounting for 21.3% of all consultations at the pediatric specialist clinics. A total of 3,056 patients were seen at the clinic during the study period. Males were 1,785 (58.4%) while females were 1,271 (41.6%) with a male: Female ratio of 1.4:1. The 3,056 patients had a total of 4,967 neurologic disorders with an average of 1.6 disorders per patient. One thousand nine hundred and thirty-two (63.2%) had one disorder while 1,124 (36.8%) had multiple disorders. The commonest neurologic disorders seen during the study period were epilepsy 2,512 (50.6%), cerebral palsy 734 (14.8%), intellectual disability 677 (13.6%), speech defect 363 (7.3%) and hearing impairment 139 (2.7%).

Conclusion: Epilepsy and cerebral palsy were the commonest neurologic disorders observed in this study. Preventable causes such as severe birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice and central nervous system infections were predominantly responsible for most of the childhood neurologic disorders seen in this study. Improvement in basic healthcare especially maternal, newborn and child care will help reduce the incidence of neurologic disorders in developing countries.