Open Access Case Report

Nbia-neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: A Rare Case Report with Review of Literature

Gauri Chauhan, A. K. Bhardwaj, Inderpreet Santok, Aarti Sareen

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/28224

NBIA (Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation) is a rare disorder with varied age group of presentation but mostly detected in childhood. It is a progressive disease with basic extra-pyramidal symptoms and an autosomal recessive nature. The incidence is found to be very low depending on the various subtypes in this group, most common being PKAN (Pantothenate Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration). We here highlight a case of a 16 years old male, radiologically proven as NBIA and currently on regular follow up at our institute.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Improvement in Feeding Behavior and Co Morbid Psychiatric Disorders in Morphine Addiction Period in Socialized Male Rats

Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian, Fatemeh Attari

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/27633

Introduction: In previous studies, other function of adult hippocampal neurogenesis besides memory and learning has not been studied. The aim of this study is to discover other function of hippocampal neurogenesis, especially in addiction period.

Materials and Methods: In this experiment 48 male Sprague-Dawley were randomly divided in four groups: 1) socialized 2) isolated 3) addicted socialized rats 4) addicted isolated rats. At the end of experiments short term memory, feeding behavior, blood glucose, zinc, anxiety level and neurogenesis were assessed.

Results: Short term memory was impaired in addicted isolated rats compared to addicted socialized rats. Food consumption increased in addicted social rats compared to addicted isolated rats. Level of blood glucose increased in addicted socialized rats compared to addicted isolated rats. Anxiety level increased in addicted isolated rats compared to addicted socialized rats. Neurogenesis decreased in addicted isolated rats compared to addicted socialized rats. Zinc was elevated in addicted isolated rats compared to addicted socialized rats.

Conclusion: Feeding behavior can be regulated by adult hippocampal neurogenesis in addiction period, and socialization improves it. Also along with these positive effects co morbid psychiatric disorder such as an anxiety improves in addiction period.

Open Access Original Research Article

QoL in Southtyrol T1D Pediatric Patients Psycho-social Well-being, Quality of Life, Health Status and Family Conflicts in a South-tyrolean Group of Pediatric Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type I

M. Tremolada, S. Bonichini, V. Piovan, N. Pastore, M. A. Mazzoldi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/28553

Background: Psychological well-being and metabolic control in pediatric patients with diabetes mellitus type I (T1D) could be negatively influenced by adolescence current age, age at the diagnosis, lower economic condition and lower education status and by higher family conflict. However, they reported lower or comparable levels of emotional difficulties compared with normative population.

Objective: To understand psycho-social symptoms, quality of life, health status and family conflicts of pediatric patients with T1D in the unique cultural environment of South-Tyrol. The present study has two goals. The first is to understand psychological symptoms and to investigate the possible risk factors. The second deals with the subgroup of adolescents, comparing their psychological functioning with a healthy control group.

Methods: Patients (n=59) with a mean age of 13.19 years (SD=3.26; range 8–18) were contacted at the Day Hospital check-ups and self- and proxy-reported questionnaires were administered: CBCL/ YSR, DFCS-R, DQOLY-SF. From this group, 45 patients aged 11–18 were matched by gender and age in months with a control group of healthy peers.

Results: Glycemic control was severely inadequate and a subgroup of patients showed lower indexes of total competencies and activities performed, especially if they were of poor economic condition and had the illness for a longer duration. The adolescent patients self-reported better psychological functioning than their healthy peers, except for conduct problems.

Conclusions: Specific psycho-social interventions should address the dangerous levels of metabolic control indexes and mitigate the patients’ conduct problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic Mapping of Multiple Psychoactive Substance Abusers in a Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Nigeria

John David Ohieku, Munir Muhammad Murtala, Siyaka Lateef

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/28507

Background: Adopting strategies to curb the menace of substance abuse in any given locality would require clear and detailed population based understanding of the patterns of abuse so as to guide comprehensive preventive and control measures.

Objectives: The objectives of the study are to survey the various substances abused and their patterns of abuses through the demographic characteristics of abusers.

Methods: The prospective study surveys the pattern of abuse of several psychoactive substances that have caused hospitalization and/or hospital visits. The demographic characteristics of patients and how they relate to the pattern of abuses were demonstrated.

Results: The distribution for most agents rises between the second and the third decades of life before declining. Agents like cannabis, tramadol, rohypnol, diazepam, benzhexol, codeine, suck and die were abused in the proportion of 68(54.4%), 75(55.6%), 9(64.3%), 33(58.9%), 24 (66.7%), 10 (66.7%) and 13(61.9%) respectively by those in their third decades of life. The age dependent declines in the proportion of abusers of agents like cannabis, tramadol, rohypnol, diazepam, benzhexol, codeine, suck and die after 30 years were significantly correlated (P<0.05). The occupational distribution showed that the quartet of nicotine, tramadol, cannabis and diazepam were abused across all occupational lines but alcohol was the main substance abused by civil servants. Both stimulants and depressants are co-abused by students, farmers, and artisans. Out of 551 cumulative substances abused, the educational distribution are primary 42(7.6%), secondary 179(32.5%), tertiary 123(22.3%), informal education 179(32.5%), adult education 4(0.7%) and uneducated 24(4.4%). The influence of education on the pattern of abuse was only demonstrated with nicotine and alcohol which recorded a progressive increase as one moves from primary to tertiary levels of education. However, abusers with secondary level of education recorded the highest cases with nitrazepam, diazepam, benzehexol, and caffeine while alcohol, rohypnol and codeine are higher in abusers with tertiary level of education compared to abusers with other educational levels. The distributions for single, married and the divorced are 396(71.9%), 148 (26.9%) and 7(1.3%) respectively. The odds values of single to married for the abusers of cannabis, tramadol, rohypnol, nitrazepam, diazepam and benzehexol are 3.4, 3.0, 6.0, 3.0, 4.6, and 2.6 respectively.

Conclusion: Substance abuse affects all age strata but the critical ages of abusers are those in their third and fourth decades of life. The distribution cut across diverse occupational background and for many individuals, the distribution pattern of substance abuse and the occupation appeared to be well correlated whereas educational association played marginal role in some few instances.   

Open Access Review Article

Medicine that Causes Memory Loss: Risk of Neurocognitive Disorders

Md. Sahab Uddin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Shahid Sarwar, Nilufa Haque Chaity, Anamul Haque, Nahia Akter, Md. Shah Amran

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/26317

Medicine is one of the outstanding gifts of science to save lives. In addition to the desired therapeutic effect almost all of the medicine possesses the undesired secondary effect called side effect. From the over-the-counter (OTC) aspirin to the prescription medicine on the market, all medicines come with side effects. Numerous are negligible, few are problematic, some are major and certain are just weird. Almost any drug can cause nausea, vomiting or an upset stomach. Every medication carries some risks, although in some cases side effects are not noticeable as a result of sub-therapeutic concentration and memory loss are very common side effect of commonly used and prescribed medicines. The memory loss is one of the prominent causes of neurocognitive disorders, especially dementia, which is characterized by a disturbance of multiple brain functions, including memory, thinking, learning, reading calculation and judgment severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. In addition to memory loss various factors as well as disorders contribute to the development of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Including AD, Lewy body dementia and frontotemporal dementia give rise to progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain functions. At present, there are no treatments for these progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Medication associated with the risk of memory loss must be taken with more precaution. Therefore, the objective of this study is to show the risk of  memory loss associated with antianxiety drugs (benzodiazepines), hypolipidemic drugs (statins), antiepileptic drugs (older and newer), antidepressant drugs (tricyclic antidepressants), narcotic painkillers (opioids), anti-Parkinson's drugs (dopamine agonists), antihypertension drugs (β-blockers), sleeping aids (nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics), incontinence drugs  (anticholinergics and antimuscarinic) and antihistamines (first-generation).