Open Access Case Report

Case Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder in a 17 Year Old Male Nigerian Adolescent

Chukwujekwu Donald, Okeafor Chukwuma, Olose Emmanuel

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/26442

This case report aims to increase the awareness and hence enhance early detection of Heller’s syndrome by health professionals.

Childhood disintegrative disorder otherwise referred to as Heller’s Syndrome or disintegrative psychosis is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by marked regression in several areas of functioning after at least 2 years of apparently normal development.

In this study, a case report of a 17 year old male Nigerian adolescent whose mental illness has lasted for about 15 years is presented. Prior to his birth, his mother experienced prolonged and difficult labour. The patient suffered an episode of childhood convulsion. Nevertheless, he developed apparently normally until the age of 2 yrs 2 months when he lost his previously acquired language, couldn’t attain any social adaptation, with associated inappropriate response to environment cues. This patient was also mentally retarded.

Heller’s syndrome is a very rare condition globally; it’s often confused with Infantile autism and has a worse prognosis than Infantile autism. Its aetiology is unknown but Central Nervous System pathologies as well as autoimmune factors have been implicated.

Early detection as well as concerted team effort is needed to improve treatment outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between School Violence and Resilience in Palestinian Children in the Gaza Strip

Abdelaziz M. Thabet, Sanaa S. Thabet

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/26895

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between school violence and resilience among Palestinian children in Gaza Strip.

Methods: The sample consisted of 449 children selected randomly from the five localities of the Gaza Strip. Children completed the School Violence Scale, and Resilience Attitude Scale.

Results: The study showed that 20.18% of children reported school violence, 23.5% reported physical violence, 12.29% verbal violence, 28.76% self- defense, 14.12% violence toward things, and 22.33% reported attitude to violence. There were statistically significant differences toward boys in total school violence and all violence subscales. Total resilience mean was 57.3 (40%), challenge mean was 17.3, commitment mean was 15.16, and control mean was 21.4. The results showed significant differences in total resilience, commitment, and control attributed to gender for the favor of boys. The results showed that total violence was not correlated with commitment.  Physical violence and violence toward things were positively correlated with commitment. While, verbal violence was predicting negatively resilience.

Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that Palestinian children were exposed to school violence which is another risk factor for children living in area of war and conflict. Programs targeting children, parents, teachers should be multilevel, community-based, and culturally situated and intervention must address the influences of historical, cultural, social, and political factors inside the Palestinian society. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Long-term Lithium Compliance in Bipolar Patients

Eric D. Peselow, Rebecca Long, Alexander Joseph Steiner, Demetria R. Pizano, Lancer Naghdechi, Nermeen Akladios, Waguih William IsHak

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/26987

Background: Mood stabilizers such as lithium are effective agents to treat bipolar disorder and are known to decrease suicide rates. This paper looks to explore the variables associated with compliance and specifically compare and contrast compliant and non-compliant patient groups.

Methods: 111 euthymic bipolar patients aged 18-75 that had not been compliant with their lithium therapy completed a phone or paper questionnaire to assess reasons of non-adherence after obtaining informed written consent for this IRB-approved study. Symptoms were also assessed by nurses using the Columbia-Milhauser Mood scale, modified from the Hamilton Depression Inventory and the Biegel Mania Scale. These results were compared to those of 133 euthymic participants that were compliant with their lithium regimen.

Results: Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between the two patient groups regarding factors affecting compliance (P values range: 0.009 - <0.001). T-tests showed patients who discontinued lithium therapy not only had more depressive symptoms when compared with the compliant group, but also the depressive symptoms were more severe (P =0.02).

Conclusions: Indefinite length of medication treatment, stigma associated with mental illness, and having one’s mood controlled by medication seemed to be associated with patient lack of compliance with lithium. Further research needs to address how to overcome these challenges and improve compliance. The results should be interpreted with caution as naturalistic data and the above results may only apply to the assessed sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mental Health of Teachers: Teachers’ Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Secondary Schools in Nigeria

Fehintola T. Asa, Victor O. Lasebikan

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/27039

Aim: This study explored the prevalence of teachers stress (TS), depression (D) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among selected secondary school teachers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Method: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 471 primary school teachers were selected by a multistage sampling technique. Demographic information was obtained; the Teacher Stress Inventory was used to determine prevalence of teachers’ stress and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine prevalence of depression and GAD. All analyses were performed with the SPSS, 17.0.

Results: The prevalence of teachers stress was 72.2%, depression, 29.3% and GAD, 29.5%.  Multivariate analyses show that female gender, OR  0.51, 95% CI (0.34-0.77), P = 0.002 was a protective factors against teachers’ stress; being a private school teacher OR = 0.06, 95% CI (0.01- 0.47), and being older than 29 years of age OR = 0.10, 95% CI (0.05-0.22), P = 0.007 were protective factors against depression; being married OR = 0.28, 95% CI (0.09-0.89), p = 0.03 and being older than 29 years of age OR = 0.23, 95% CI (0.11-0.45), P < 0.001 were protective factors against GAD.

Conclusion: Our results are suggestive of incorporating the teachers’ mental health program into the school health program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Training Contributions of Executive Functions in Perception of Quality of Life in Elderly

Regina Maria Fernandes Lopes, Irani I. de Lima Argimon

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/20347

Aims: Verify the presence or lack of improvement in quality of life perception, comparing the results of the evaluation from both elderly groups that participated on the executive functions training research.

Study Design:  This is a quantitative, quasi-experimental, correlational study, with pre- and post-tests and intervention, with a control group for comparing.

Place and Duration of Study: Program of Graduate Studies in Psychology (PUCRS), between April 2013 and September 2013.

Methodology: 145 participants, all over 60 years old. Instruments: a battery of neuropsychological evaluations of cognitive functions, and the WHOQOL-OLD and WHOQOL-BREF, before and after cognitive testing. The participants from the experimental group participated in eight sessions of cognitive training (CT). 83 subjects agreed to participate in the research, 16 men (19.3 percent) and 67 women (80.7 percent). They were divided into a Control Group (CG, n=38) and an Experimental Group (EG, n=45).

Results: Comparing the results between groups, there was a significant difference in the scores related to quality of life, especially in the Past-Present-Future activity of the WHOQOL-OLD (p=0.025). The EG participants increased their score significantly in this domain when compared to the CG. The EG had significant improvement in the Past-Present-Future activity of the WHOQOL-OLD (p=0.002) and in total score (p=0.014). The CG had significant improvement in the total score of the WHOQOL-BREF (p=0.041).

Conclusion: The training of executive functions utilizing the program named above contributed for the improvement of life quality in elders.