Open Access Original Research Article

Sociodemographic and Quality of Life of Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Comparison within Saudi Arabia’s Population

Abdel W. Awadalla

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/21469

Background: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling condition that negatively affects quality of life (QoL) of patients with this disorder attributable to sociodemographic, clinical and illness-specific factors. However, findings vary across studies that have explored sociodemographic and QoL of patients with OCD compared to control group or patients with other mental disorders.

Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the sociodemographic and comparatively assess QoL of patients with OCD and community dwellers with no diagnosis of OCD.

Method: Sixty patients with diagnosed OCD and seventy six people without OCD were selected from different clinical and community settings, respectively. A semi-structured proforma was used for the collection of sociodemographic variables and World Health Organization QOL-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) scale for the assessment of the subjective QoL of both groups.

Results: Male gender, lower education and unemployment were significantly associated with OCD and scores related to physical, psychological, social and environmental domains of WHOQOL-BREF were significantly lower in OCD group compared to control population. All grades of satisfaction levels differ significantly between sub-items of 3 domains of QoL of OCD group when compared to community dwellers but environmental domain sub-items did not differ between the two groups. The OCD group was not significantly dissatisfied across all four QoL domains when compared to control group.

Conclusion: The preliminary results of this study are partially comparable to international data on QoL of patients with OCD and call for a research with a larger sample in Saudi Arabia’s community setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome Evaluation of Surgical Versus Conservative Treatment of Spontaneous Non- Traumatic Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Ahmed Esmael, Mohamed Elsherif, Mohamed Elsayed, Mohamed State

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/23434

Background: Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SSICH) has the greatest morbidity and fatality of all cerebral strokes, moreover the contribution of surgery stays contradictory. Early surgery to restrict the mechanical compression of the brain and the toxic impacts of blood maybe reduce damage.

Aim: To compare the outcome and efficacy of surgical evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with the conservative medical treatment in cases of SSICH.

Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with SSICH was recruited to surgical or best medical treatment. Twenty-five patients experienced surgical evacuation whereas the other twenty-five were provided with conservative medical treatment. A history and neurological examination, including an assessment by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), were obtained at the time of admission. Primary outcome (death or disability) using the extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was 6 months after the onset. Secondary outcomes included mortality, the Barthel index (BI), and the modified Rankin scale (mRS).

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in GOS, GCS or NIHSS after one month of treatment. The mortality rate at 6 months for the early surgery group was 10 patients (40%) and the conservative group was 8 patients (32%) without statistically significant (P = 0.556). The secondary outcome by mRS and by BI was statistically significant in cases of the conservative group in comparison with cases of the surgical group (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: We conclude that there is no statistically significant difference in outcome between surgical and medical management of primary ICH. Patients with superficial hematomas might benefit from surgery. While, patients with GCS of ≤ 8 surgical evacuations should be avoided especially if the hematoma volume of ≥ 50 cm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mental and Social Health Atlas: An Update, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, 2015

Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb, Basmah Abdulaziz Helmi, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/23002

Background: Mental health (MH) is an extremely integral component of health and accordingly there is “no health without mental health’’.

Objective: Based on the concept of World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Division Model, this paper updates to the previous published Mental and Social Health Atlas 2007-2008, Ministry of Health (MOH), Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Besides reviewing the MOH health and statistical documents and social reports of Ministry of Social Affairs (MOSA), relevant data was collected from all mental health and social settings using predesigned semi-structured formats.

Results: Over a period of seven years, several gaps earlier found in mental health systems (MHS) were bridged. The infrastructure and human resources developments in line with national MH planning were regularly monitored in order to successfully implement the projects tailored to meet the needs of people with psychiatric disorders and their caregivers.

Conclusion: Overall, tremendous progress has been made in several components of mental health systems, which include infrastructure, human resources, clinical and community services, continuing medical education, legislation and governance, health promotion and research. There is persistent need to further improve mental health systems in Ministry of Health related to community mental health, forensic psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, addiction, promotion and preventive services, governance and finances, research and training of mental health professionals across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Evidence for Oxidative Stress in Suicide Cases- A Postmortem Study

Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya, Adnan Celikel, Umit Sertan Copoglu, Cem Zeren, Ali Eren, Musa Sahpolat, Oguzhan Ozcan

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/23302

Aim: Many researchers have studied the oxidative mechanism and found that its disruption may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of certain psychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders and schizophrenia, all of which have high suicide incidences. We aimed to investigate post-mortem suicide cases to test the hypothesis that the oxidative mechanism is disturbed by suicidal behaviours.

Methods: We performed this study on post-mortem blood samples of 35 suicide cases and 25 control patients with different mortis causa. The total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) of the plasma were measured using a novel automated colorimetric measurement method.

Results: TAS levels were significantly higher in the suicide group compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in the TOS level between the two groups.

Conclusion: TAS is increased in the systemic circulation of people who commit suicide. We believe that TAS and TOS may be used as a diagnostic parameter in the future after further study. Additionally, antioxidant prophylaxis may be used in psychiatric disorders to prevent suicide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adolescent Students’ Knowledge of Depression and Appropriate Help-seeking in Nigeria

Increase Ibukun Adeosun

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/24002

Aim: Globally, but even more remarkably in developing countries, many young people suffer from untreated depression despite the availability of evidence-based treatment. Utilisation of mental health resources is hinged on the recognition of symptoms and the need for appropriate help-seeking. There is a dearth of research on depression literacy among adolescents in Africa. This study assessed depression literacy in a sample of adolescent students in Lagos, Nigeria.

Study Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of students (n=280) recruited from three senior secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. Depression literacy (recognition of depression and appropriate help-seeking) was assessed with a questionnaire containing a case vignette of depressive disorder based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 15.1(±1.6) years, and 54% were females. Depression was predominantly misidentified as physical illness (26.1%), ‘thinking too much’ (13.6%), stress (11.8%) emotional problems (14.3%) or reaction to maltreatment/abuse (15%). Only 10.4% of the respondents correctly identified that the vignette depicted depression. The commonly endorsed sources of help-seeking were counsellors (33.9%), General practitioners (43.9%) or parents/elders (15.0%), and only 6.5% recommended a mental health professional.

Conclusion: The findings indicate a critical need for interventions targeted at improving knowledge of depression and promote appropriate help-seeking among adolescents in Nigeria. Such interventions could facilitate early detection and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, thereby minimising the treatment gap for depression.