Open Access Original Research Article

Mental Health in Primary Care: Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Umoh Kufre Albert, Jumbo Henry Effiong

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 102-107
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/18664

Mental health is a state of wellbeing in which individuals realize his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. Mixed and anxiety and depression is a mental disorder that does not allow people to achieve mental health.

Aim: To determine the prevalence and socio-demographic features of respondents diagnosed with mixed anxiety and depression in an outpatient of a general clinic.

Methods: 245 respondents were randomly selected from an outpatient of a general clinic and screened for anxiety, depression and mixed anxiety and depression with the Hospital anxiety and depression scale.

Results: 17.5% (n=43) of the respondents had mixed anxiety and depression, 36.7% (n=90) had anxiety and 24.5% (n=60) had depression. Mixed anxiety and depression was commoner among age group 30-39 years n=10 (23.3%), married respondents n=24 (55.8%), civil servants n=19 (44.2%), post secondary education level respondents n=18 (41.9%), and those that earned less than 10000 naira per month n=18 (41.9%).

Conclusion: Mixed anxiety and depression is common in our environment. It is needful to screen patients attending the primary care facility for this condition for early diagnosis to prevent the psychological, social and physical impairment that could affect the individual and extend to the family.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anxiolytic Effect of Citrus paradisi var. Marsh seedless Using Different Models

Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal, Kamlesh Kohli, Pankaj Ghaiye

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 108-113
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/18699

Aims: The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-anxiety activity of various extracts of the leaves of Citrus paradisi var. Marsh seedless using light dark model and hole board methods in Swiss albino mice.

Methodology: Swiss Albino mice were treated with different doses of the extracts (50,100,200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) and Diazepam (2 mg/kg, p.o) was used as a positive control using Hole Board test and light dark model. 

Results: Results showed that methanol extract in doses of 100 mg/kg p.o. and 200 mg/kg p.o. possesses marked anti anxiety activity. This effect was comparable to the effect produced by standard drug, diazepam.

Conclusion: Hence this plant may be developed as a potentially useful anxiolytic agent. Further studies are going on to find out the active constituent responsible for this activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Internet Addiction and Depression in a Sample of Nigerian University Undergraduates

Friday E. Okwaraji, Emmanuel N. Aguwa, Godwin C. Onyebueke, Chioma Shiweobi-Eze

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 114-122
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/19096

Background: Report has revealed that with about 45.04 million people that use the internet in Nigeria, the country has been named among the 20 top countries that use the internet in the world. Furthermore on a population penetration of 170.2 million people Nigeria’s internet penetration ratio was put at 26.5 percent.

Objective: This study investigated internet addiction and depression in a sample of Nigerian university undergraduates.

Study Design: This is a descriptive cross sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Enugu, South East Nigeria between February and April 2015.

Method: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) by Young, the Beck Depression Inventory version two (BDI-2), by Beck et al. and a socio demographic questionnaire were used to assess 510 Nigerian university undergraduates for prevalence of internet addiction and depression.

Results: The data revealed that 29.0% of the respondents showed mild internet addiction, 20.0% showed moderate internet addiction, while 10.2% had severe internet addiction. Furthermore 20.0% and 4.5% of the respondents had mild and moderate depression respectively. No case of severe depression was registered. Equally gender and year of study showed significant differences in internet addiction and depression.

Conclusion: This study observed the prevalence of internet addiction and depression in a sample of Nigerian university undergraduates. It is recommended that if it will be possible university administration with the help of internet providers may try to work out how to monitor the rate of internet usage among undergraduates.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender, Age and Class in School Differences in Internet Addiction and Psychological Distress among Adolescents in a Nigerian Urban City

Friday E. Okwaraji, Emmanuel N. Aguwa, Godwin C. Onyebueke, Sussan U. Arinze-Onyia, Chioma Shiweobi-Eze

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 123-131
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/18933

Background: Reports had revealed that internet addiction is a newly emerging social and mental health issue among the youths and has attracted much attention around the world. Furthermore excessive use of the internet has negatively affected the daily life routines of adolescents.

Objective: This study assessed gender differences, internet addiction and psychological distress among adolescents in a Nigerian urban city.

Study Design: This is a descriptive cross sectional study design.

Place and duration of study: This study was carried out in Enugu, south east Nigeria between February and April 2015.

Method: The young Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the General health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and a socio demographic questionnaire were used to access 480 adolescents (240 males and 240 females) in a Nigerian urban city for prevalence of internet addiction and psychological distress.

Results: Result revealed that many adolescents showed presence of internet addiction and psychological distress. There was difference in internet addiction and psychological difference among the age groups, gender and class in school.

Conclusion: This study has observed the prevalence of internet addiction and psychological distress among adolescents in a Nigerian urban city. It is recommended that there is need for government to make laws regulating the rate of usage of the internet by young people especially adolescents.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Mental Health Literacy about Schizophrenia among Secondary School Students in Lagos, Nigeria

Increase Ibukun Adeosun, Abosede Adegbohun, Oyetayo Jeje, Fikunayo Manuwa

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 132-139
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2015/19296

Aim: There is a huge treatment gap for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries. Mental health literacy is a pre-requisite for prompt and appropriate help-seeking for schizophrenia. The current study assessed mental health literacy about schizophrenia in a sample of secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria.

Study Design and Method: A cross-sectional study design was used. Secondary school students (n=156) attending a public co-educational secondary school in Lagos, south-West Nigeria completed a vignette-based questionnaire which assessed literacy about schizophrenia.   

Results: None of the respondents accurately identified schizophrenia in the case vignette. However, 25.6% identified the vignette as a mental disorder, while 3.9%, 2.6% and 0.6% labelled it as emotional problem, depression and mania respectively. Stigmatising labels such as ‘insane’ /’mad’/’brain touch’ were used by 14.1% of the respondents. About a fifth (21.2%) perceived the vignette as a reaction to stress or negative emotional state. Other responses included drug addiction (3.2%), evil spirit possession (5.8%), cultism (3.9%), HIV-AIDS (3.9%) and guilt (5.1%). Less than a quarter (23.7%) of the respondents recommended psychiatrists/mental health services as the appropriate source of help-seeking. 

Conclusion: The huge knowledge deficits about schizophrenia in this limited sample suggest a significantly unmet need for mental health literacy interventions among adolescents in Nigeria. This may negatively impact on appropriate help-seeking and outcomes of individuals with schizophrenia. Further larger scale studies are needed to confirm and extend our findings.