Open Access Case Study

Association of Corpus Callosum Agenesis with Mental Retardation and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Rohit Verma, Shaily Mina, Mohit Sahni, Pankaj Kumar

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2013/3851

Aims: Anomalies of the corpus callosum have been associated with varied brain and somatic malformations. It has been associated with diverse genetic causes with identifiable syndromes. We aim to report a case of corpus callosal agenesis (CCA) associated with mental retardation and hyperactivity.

Presentation of case: We report case of a 7 year old boy having CCA, abnormal facial morphological features, mental retardation and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), devoid of any chromosomal rearrangements or somatic malformations known to be associated with corpus callosal changes.

Discussion: Symptoms in CCA are often related to concurrent migrational disorders, not to the callosal anomaly itself. Although multiple genetic etiologies have been associated, no single gene has been proved to be implied in all cases of CCA.

Conclusion: This case highlights importance of recognizing mental retardation and ADHD as a presentation of isolated CCA which may occur without any known chromosomal malformation.

 

Open Access Review Article

The Development of Cannabidiol as a Psychiatric Therapeutic: A Review of Its Antipsychotic Efficacy and Possible Underlying Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms

Shahin AM Jalali, William E. Johnson

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 113-147
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2013/6192

Cannabidiol (CBD), a once-considered inert cannabis constituent, is one of two primary constituents of cannabis, alongside delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC/THC). In the last 30 years, CBD has become implicated with a range of pharmaceutical mechanisms of great therapeutic interest and utility. This review details the literature speculating CBD’s attenuation of psychotic symptoms, particularly in light of a marked elevation in mean THC concentrations, and a concomitant decline in CBD concentrations in the prevalent U.K street market cannabis derivatives since c. 2000. CBD is purported to exhibit pharmacology akin to established atypical antipsychotics, whilst THC has been implicated with the precipitation of psychosis, and the induction of associated symptoms. The aim of the review was to clarify the conjecture surrounding CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy, before going on to detail prominent theories about its associated pharmacodynamics. Were CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy established, then there is potential for major latent anthropological repercussions to manifest, such as significant elevations in psychosis manifestations in the U.K. The review found a largely affirmative body of evidence asserting CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy. CBD exhibited capacity to attenuate natural and artificially induced psychoses in both animal and human cohorts, the latter of which included individuals considered resistant to conventional treatment. CBD also shows promising potential for use as an antipsychotic drug for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with psychosis, owing to its low rate of extra-pyramidal side-effect induction. A range of potential pharmacological mechanisms behind CBD’s neuroleptic pharmacology are outlined, with particular emphasis on its prevention of the hydrolysis and reuptake of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. However, given the nebular aetiological basis for psychoses, explicit conclusions on how CBD attenuates psychotic symptoms remains to be determined.