Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Psycholinguistic and Intelligence Factors in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

Fang Tong, Tong Fu

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/20172

Aims: To probe the developing factors for both general intelligence and special linguistic abilities on children with dyslexia.

Study Design: Dyslexia outpatients were screened from The Chinese Capital Institute of Pediatrics following the ICD-10-CM (International Classification of Diseases), and retested in laboratory again after consent form was obtained from participants.

Methodology: To conduct the Chinese psycholinguistic assessment, the WISC-III intelligence test, and the questionnaire survey on early developing factors. The data were input Excel and analyzed with SPSS16.

Results: 1) Unbalanced equilibrium was responsible for the development of phonological score (PS) and orthographic score (OS) of psycholinguistic assessment; 2) Some units of intellectual development delays were at different degrees; 3) With a score of 90 as the boundary value comparison used by full intelligence quotient (FIQ) groups, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed significantly on the automatic level and closer processes of psycholinguistic. With a score of 85 as the boundary value comparison used by psycholinguistic groups, most factors in the general IQ showed significant positive relationship, but some factors showed a negative relationship regarding the information and arithmetic portion of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), and a significantly negative relationship on the coding of the performance intelligence quotient (PIQ). 4) The early motion development and single syllable pronunciation of children with dyslexia was slightly underdeveloped.

Conclusions: Children with dyslexia should be focused on balance between their abilities relating psycholinguistic factors. The general intelligence factors have alternately relationships with psycholinguistic factors. At the same time, close attention should be paid to early intelligence problems, such as macro motor delays.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Alexithymia in Patients Admitted to the Dermatology Clinic

Pinar Ozuguz, Seval Dogruk Kacar, Ahmet Hamdi Alpaslan, Bahadir Celep, Hanife Uzel

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/20406

Background and Aim: Alexithymia has been suggested to be an important symptom in psychodermatological patients. Our study aims to evaluate alexithymia by diseases groups in patients who were admitted at the dermatology clinic.

Materials and Methods: The Toronto Alexithymia Scale was used on 150 patients, aged 15-75 years, who were admitted to the Dermatology Clinic and 100 age-sex matched controls, without any skin disease, among the admissions to general surgery clinic. The patients were divided into 5 groups based on diagnoses. A p<0.05 was considered significant in all tests.

Results: While the overall alexithymic score in all patients was 51.27±10.71, these values were 45.30±7.50 in the healthy group, with the difference being statistically significant (p≤0.001). While 56.7% of the patients were not alexithymic, 23.3% were diagnosed to have borderline alexithymia, and 20% alexithymia. And in the control group, alexithymia borderline was found in 11 out of 100 persons (11%). The patients were classified into Group 1 Acne vulgaris 28%, Group 2 papulosquamous diseases 10%, Group 3 infectious skin diseases 16.7%, Group 4 dermatitis 14.7%, and Group 5 other diseases 30.7%. While there was no statistically significant difference between these values, (TAS-B) difficulty identifying emotions was found to be statistically low (p=0.04) in the dermatitis group.

Conclusion: Some skin diseases may increase alexithymia or some dermatological diseases may predispose to alexithymia. Further studies with larger patient profiles organized in more specific groups are needed in order to elucidate possible alexithymia in the etiopathogenesis of dermatological diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Life Satisfaction, Self Esteem and Depression in a Sample of Nigerian Adolescents

Friday E. Okwaraji, Emmanuel N. Aguwa, Chioma Shiweobi-Eze

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/20805

Background: A person’s state of mind often affects his/her health and how he/she responds to stress. The level of happiness and life satisfaction in the individual can be assessed by finding out if a person has high amounts of positive emotion, engagement, meaning, positive relationships and self esteem. Present study was therefore aimed at obtaining the levels of life satisfaction, self esteem and depression among Nigerian adolescents.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study design that was carried out in Enugu, south east Nigeria between May and July 2015. The Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Self Esteem Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory version two (BDI-2) and a socio demographic questionnaire were used to access 720 Nigerian adolescents.

Results: About 30% of the respondents indicated not being satisfied with their lives and 32.1% had low self esteem. Also 16.7%, 9.4% and 0.6% had mild depression, moderate depression and severe depression respectively.

Conclusion: This study observed low levels of life satisfaction, self esteem and varying degrees of depression in a sample of Nigerian adolescents. It is recommended that there is the need to introduce regular adolescent counseling and personality assessment for all adolescents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Liver Cirrhosis Patients to Early Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

K. P. Sangeetha, Narayanasamy Krishnasamy, K. Padma, Karthick Rajendran

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/19004

Introduction: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is mildest form of the spectrum of neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. Early recognition of this impairment may prevent the progression or may delay the development of the disease to overt hepatic encephalopathy. Although certain evidence suggest that that oxidative stress is a central component in the pathogenesis MHE, data remain controversial.

Aims: We tested the utility of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as an oxidative stress marker of HE by comparing its levels in patients with MHE.

Study Design: The study was conducted in 60 subjects, included 30 cirrhotic patients (19 with MHE, 11 without MHE) and 30 control subjects.

Results: Cirrhosis patients with signs of MHE had decreased levels of GPx when compared to the Non-MHE and control groups. Our study provided evidence of increased oxidative stress in patients affected with MHE, as expressed by decreased serum glutathione peroxidase antioxidant. We also found a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum glutathione peroxidase antioxidant and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score (r = -0.734, P = .0001).

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the levels of the oxidative stress marker - GPx, may contribute to early diagnosis of MHE when used in conjunction with other routine markers.


Open Access Review Article

Influence of Psychotropic Drugs upon Neuropsychological Test Performance

Edward Helmes

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/20422

Commonly used psychotropic medications are widely presumed to have deleterious effects on neuropsychological test performance. However, given the special difficulties of neuropsychological assessment with psychiatric populations, these effects have rarely been directly examined for differential, quantitative effects on test scores. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is described that assesses executive functions, memory, language comprehension, motor and sensory functions, and manual praxis.  Data are presented on 233 psychiatric patients (70 females, 163 males) referred for neuropsychological assessment.  All people with known or suspected brain damage were excluded, with 100 not taking any type of psychoactive medication. Comparisons between an unmedicated group and those taking the most common medications showed differences on tests of perseverative responses and praxis. No effects for nonverbal memory, simple motor functions, basic intellectual processes or visuomotor functions were noted.  Implications for the assessment of people taking psychotropic medications are discussed.