Open Access Original Research Article

Quality of Life of Palestine Children Exposed to Wars in Gaza

Abdelaziz Mousa Thabet, Sanaa S. Thabet

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/22189

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the impact of trauma due to wars on quality of life of Palestine children living in Gaza with special reference to 2009 war.

It is analytic study; the study sample consisted of 195 children and adolescents who were selected purposely from three areas in the Gaza Strip. Those children exposed to variety of traumatic events besides losing their homes during ground incursion of the border and shelling and bombardment of the area. They were 101 boys (51.8%) and 94 girls (48.2%). The age ranged from 7 to 18 years with mean age of 12.84 (SD = 2.9). Children were assessed by socio-demographic questionnaire, Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, and Health Related Quality of Life.

Results: the highest frequencies of reported traumatic events by Palestinians children were 97.9% hear shelling of the area by artillery, 93.3% hear the sonic sounds of the jetfighters, 90.8% watched mutilated bodies in TV, and 85.6% were forced to move from home to a safer place during the war. The study showed that mean total quality of life was 62.80, physical functioning was 69.87,   emotional functioning was 51.96, mean of social functioning was 77.62, and school functioning mean was 47.53. Total traumatic events reported by children were negatively strongly correlated with total Health Related Quality of Lief (HRQoL), physical, emotional, and social functioning.  However, traumatic experiences by children were not correlated with school function.

Conclusion: In summary, this study not only supports the findings of the body of research as it relates to traumatic experiences in children and adolescents and impact of their health quality of life, but also has important implications for establishing and implementation of different psychosocial intervention programs for the school-aged population in Gaza Strip. There are need to be considered in the planning of educational and mental health support services by different governmental United Nations organizations, and non-governmental organization in Gaza. Also, successful treatment of the mental health symptoms associated with traumatic events first requires an acknowledgment of the trauma and then a process which allows for comprehensive assessment and accurate diagnosis. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Alexithymia, the Emotional Blindness among Stroke Survivors: A Preliminary Study

Mohammed M. J. Alqahtani

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/21803

Stroke patients suffer from emotional disturbances. Alexithymia is a common impairment after stroke. To date, no Arabic study has examined the potential comorbidity of alexithymia and stroke in a rehabilitation outpatient setting.

Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to collect information from stroke survivors. Subjects were recruited from the outpatient rehabilitation clinic at King Fahad Medical City - Rehab Hospital (KFMC-RH), during their follow up.

Results: Stroke survivors (n= 33) were compared with healthy control subjects (n= 35) on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) of Quality of Life (QoL). Alexithymia was significantly associated with stroke survivors. Alexithymia was reported to be a predictor of poorer QoL, even when depression and anxiety were controlled. Qualitative studies (n=15) followed, in order to obtain in-depth information about post-stroke alexithymia. Emotional change was one of the most frequently voiced complaints of stroke survivors and their caregivers.

Conclusions: The conclusion encourages the assessment of alexithymia in rehabilitation settings for stroke survivors. Increased awareness of the potential mediating role of alexithymia in post-stroke psychological symptoms will facilitate effective diagnoses and better rehabilitation intervention for better outcomes.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Facility-based Assessment of Internalized Stigma among Patients with Severe Mental Illnesses in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria

Abdu W. Ibrahim, Yerima M. Mukhtar, Pindar K. Sadique, Bolori M. Tahir, Amodu M. Olabisi, Rabbebe I. Bukar, Wakil M. Abba, Omotara B. Abayomi

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/21958

Introduction: Public stigmatization of mental illnesses might lead to the internalization of the stigma by persons with mental illness (PWMIs) which might also lead to erosion of self-esteem and negative consequences on treatment outcome. This study assessed the prevalence of internalized stigma and analyzed its socio-demographic and clinical predictors among PWMIs in a sub-Saharan African mental health facility.

Methods: Patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression (n = 370) were randomly interviewed at the out-patient department of the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri. They completed the sociodemographic and clinical proformata, Oslo social support scale, and an adapted version of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale (ISMI).

Results: A total of 83 subjects (22.5%) met the study's criterion score for high internalized stigma. The independent predictors of high internalized stigma were; poor social support (Odds ratio, OR = 4.501, 95% CI = 2.423 - 8.363, p ≤ 0.001), supernatural aetiological beliefs (OR = 3.916, 95% CI = 2.322 - 6.606, p ≤ 0.001), seeking for unorthodox treatment (OR = 3.637, 95% CI = 2.073 - 6.308, p ≤ 0.001), full insight (OR = 3.595, 95% CI = 2.141 - 6.036, p ≤ 0.001), and presence of extrapyramidal side effects (OR = 12.201, 95% CI = 6.827 - 21.805, p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusion: Extrapyramidal side effects, poor social support and misconceptions about the aetiology of mental illnesses were the strongest predictors of internalized stigma among the subjects. The use of second generation antipsychotic medications, the engagement of members of the patients' social support base and the incorporation of psycho-educational programmes to dispel 'myths' about the aetiology of mental illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa are hereby recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

Magnitude of Attention Deficit Hyper Kinetic Disorder among School Children of Mysore City

Renuka Manjunath, M. Kishor, Praveen Kulkarni, B. M. Shrinivasa, Saigopal Sathyamurthy

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/21954

Background: Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder of Childhood and adolescence. There are only a few studies reporting the prevalence of this condition.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary school; children aged 6-10 years of Mysore city, using Conner’s 3 Parent short form. A total of thousand hundred and forty five children participated in the study.

Results: The overall prevalence of ADHD was 14.4%. The prevalence of ADHD Inattentive, Hyperactive and Combined type was 4.1, 3.4 and 6.9% respectively. The male female ratio was 1.8:1. Paternal alcohol consumption (OR 2.36) and lack of breast feeding (OR 2.43) were found to be predictors of ADHD. Aggression/Defiance and Learning Difficulties were observed in 63 and 58.2% respectively.

Conclusion: This study noticed a very high prevalence of ADHD. Increasing awareness among parents and teachers about the disorder can lead to early identification and management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Blood Biomarkers in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Mohammed El Sherif, Ahmed Esmael, Osama Abd-El Salam

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/22766

Background: The utilization of biomarker panels in acute ischemic cerebral stroke (AICS) could enhance the proper diagnosis that facilitate the identification of the cause of the cerebral stroke which is essential for rationally manage and avoid stroke recurrence.

Objectives: To inspect the vulnerable associations among a panel of blood biomarkers {D-dimer (DD), angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S-100b), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)} and AICS patients.

Patients and Methods: This is a prospective research performed on patients with AICS who admitted at Saudi German Hospital-KSA in corporation with the neurology department Mansoura faculty of medicine - Egypt during one and half years' duration. Demographics of the patients, fatality as well as the clinic and a panel of blood biomarkers serum levels were gathered. The clinical scales {National institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scoring for severity on admission, and Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for outcome after 3 months were tested for all AICS patients.

Results: An overall of 150 patients with AICS was investigated, with a mean age of 62±14 years with males 52%. The AICS cases were set side by side to age and sex matched thirty healthy controls (HC) demonstrating that the patients were more likely to have significantly hypertension, and atrial fibrillation (71.3%, 20%, P< 0.05 respectively). The mortality after 3 months was 11% (15 cases). Regarding stroke severity NIHSS score mean was 11.6±6. The serum levels for a panel of blood biomarker (DD, S100b, and BNP) are significantly higher while for Angpt1 is significantly lower with AICS in comparison to HC. Multivariate predictors of patients with an unfavorable functional outcome, DD, S-100b, and BNP levels were significantly higher compared with the levels in patients with a favorable outcome. On the contrary, the level of Angpt1 is significantly decreased in patients with an unfavorable functional outcome. The stroke severity (NIHSS score) correlated significantly with the outcome (mRS) as less severe cases showed more favorable outcome. The clinical variables that showed significant correlation were age, diabetic, and atrial fibrillation.

Conclusion: Our findings highlighted that blood biomarkers can be accustomed as a valuable tool to investigate AICS and to anticipate initial neurological outcome that would assist in determining patients at risk of unfavorable outcome offering alert to launch therapies to avert aggravating of the patient's status.