Open Access Case Study

Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (Fahr's syndrome): Initial Clinical Neuropsychiatric Presentation without Corresponding Neurological Deficit

Malte Christian Claussen, Katayun Hassanpour, Josef Jenewein, Soenke Boettger

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/34524

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) or Fahr's syndrome is a rare disorder with various clinical presentations which can mimic - in particular - psychiatric illness. The following case is characterized by the typical basal ganglia calcifications and presentation of neuropsychiatric symptoms indicating the first clinical presentation in the absence of a neurological deficit. As previously reported, the extent of calcification did not predict neurological impairment, however, predicted severe psychosis.

Open Access Case Study

Acute Human Herpesvirus-7-associated Encephalitis in a Young Adult Coinfected with Herpes Simplex Virus -1/2 and Epstein-Barr Virus

Pavel A. Dyachenko

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/34258

Background: Herpesvirus encephalitis (HVE) is a serious threat to people's health and life. The most common cause of these is herpes simplex virus. On the contrary, only isolated cases of encephalitis associated with herpesvirus type 7 are described.

Objective: To describe a case of acute encephalitis in a young adult caused by uncommon Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), underlying with Herpes simplex virus 1/2 (HSV-1/2) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection.

Results: A 20-years-old woman presented to The Center of Infectious Disorders of the Nervous System (Kyiv, Ukraine) after developing acute fever followed by a left side partial loss of hearing. Her physical examination showed slow mentation and generalized weakness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed pleocytosis of 15 cell/µl (45% lymphocytes, 55% granulocytes), and HHV-7 DNA (3.35 log genome copies per ml). CSF also contained IgG antibodies against HSV-1/2 and EBV capsid antigen (CA). No HHVs DNA nor antibodies to viral proteins were detected in the blood. Areas of mild increased signal in parietal lobes were detected on an MRI brain scan. After treating with Ganciclovir the patient was discharged in good condition.

Conclusion: The author presents a case of primary HHV-7 infection followed acute encephalitis with typical MRI findings and HHV-7 DNA in CSF PCR. Ganciclovir therapy results in complete virology and neurological recovery. This case may be useful for clinicians in the differential diagnosis of CNS infection, taking into account that HHV-7 may be an etiological factor, and a timely diagnosis is the most important imperative for successful treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dream Anxiety in Patients with Rapid Eye Movement Dependent Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Ece Yazla, Mustafa Bilici, Zerrin Pelin

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/33703

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the breathing disorders that arise during sleep and are predominantly observed in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) phase onto the dreams which have negative effects on daily life. While doing this, we also investigated differences between the REM dependent and non REM dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome groups in terms of some sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

Methods: Seventy patients who had got the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) were included into the study. Twenty of them were selected from those who had REM dependent OSAS.

Results: No significant difference was observed on dream anxiety levels between the groups (p=0,27). Dream anxiety level was not found significantly related to clinical characteristics. We determined that the arousal index of non REM dependent OSAS group was significantly higher than that of REM dependent group (p<0,05).

Conclusion: Because of arousals, a rise in the frequency of remembering dreams in the non REM dependent group may also have an effect on increased dream anxiety. Probably this fact might have caused us not to find any differences with the REM dependent group which is accepted to have higher dream anxiety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Verbal Fluency is Related to Theory of Mind: Comparison in Control Children and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Leila Mehdizade Fanid, Hassan Shahrokhi, Shahrokh Amiri

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/32614

Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopment disorder, primarily encompassing difficulties in the social, language, and communicative domains. Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind (ToM) and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, there has been little research investigating the association of these two aspects with regard to autistic symptomatology. The relation between executive function and theory of mind may involve specific processes of verbal ability and/or working memory capacity contributing to ToM. To differentiate these alternatives, we administered task batteries measuring working memory and ToM, as well as measures of verbal fluency, to 15 children with autism spectrum disorder. The results indicated that children with ASD performed significantly worse than normal children on ToM tasks (Z=4.7, p<0 .001). Furthermore, the results indicated that theory of mind abilities in ASD individuals are strongly correlated with language ability (r=0.52, p<0.05). However, it was found that autistic children's difficulty in attributing a ToM is not due to memory failure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Atypical Antipsychotic Prevents and Reverses Negative Symptoms in Models of Schizophrenia

Nagi F. Idris

International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/INDJ/2017/34161

Introduction: Negative symptoms associated with cognitive impairment as a core symptom of schizophrenia with significant poor quality of life and remain an unmet clinical need. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists in rodents has been proposed as an animal model of negative symptoms in this disorder. Evidence from both animal models and human studies implicates a dysfunction of NMDA receptor function may attribute to pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of sub-chronic co-administration of clozapine and haloperidol to both prevent and attenuate the social deficits induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP) in the social interaction tasks.

Methods: In the first test, female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline, clozapine 5.0 mg/kg or haloperidol 0.05 mg/kg, 30 min later followed by either saline or PCP 2.0 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days, followed by 7 days drug free before tested in social interaction tasks. For the second test, female Sprague-Dawley rats received either vehicle or PCP 2.0 mg/kg for 7 days followed by 7 days drug free. Then rats received clozapine 5.0 mg/kg, haloperidol 0.05 mg/kg or vehicle twice daily for 7 days and were tested 120 min following the last dose of antipsychotic in social interaction tasks.

Results: PCP treatment produced a significantly reduced social behaviours and that effect significantly prevented and improved by clozapine, but not haloperidol.

Conclusions: These results suggest that antagonism of the consequences of reduced NMDA receptor function could contribute to the superior efficacy of atypical antipsychotic agents in improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. These negative symptoms impairment likely reflect clinically relevant and can be used to evaluate the antipsychotic potential of new compounds on cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.