International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2321-7235) </strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/INDJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Neuropsychiatric Disease related research’.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal 2321-7235 Evaluation of the Examination Stress among the First Year MBBS Students in the Medical College https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/30158 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The objectives were to determine the effect of examination stress explored by self-evaluation questionnaire, correlation of examination stress and impact of examination stress on the academic performance.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A prospective cohort study was conducted on medical students to determine the examination stress explored by anxiety questionnaire, biochemical parameter and autonomic function tests. Fifty medical students studying in first academic year admitted for the first year were included in the study. Information about demographic, social, cultural, and life-style factors were collected using a proforma of questionnaire. Name, age, sex and nativity were also recorded. Stress was explored during first terminal examination since it was the first major examination faced by the students after entering into the professional course. One parameter was used to measure the level of stress; Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) self-evaluation questionnaire to measure the level of stress.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Anxiety levels dropped in post- examination period. In contrast abnormal autonomic functions did not decrease during post- examination period. In male and female students expected pattern of raised anxiety during examination and dropped anxiety scores in post- examination were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study should help understand the pattern of response to the examination stress and enable development of strategies that will assist the students to handle the stress in a more efficient manner.</p> Mahesh Tilwani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 1 5 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i430158 A Study of 4G Radiofrequency Radiation effects on Juvenile Wistar Rats Cerebellum and Potential Attenuative Properties of Fish Oil Omega-3 Fat https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/30159 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Technological devices have become a very important part of our everyday life. These electronic devices create an artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) and emit radiofrequency radiations (RFR) which have been reported to have deleterious effects on various tissues in living organisms. Fish oil is a rich source of the n-3 (also known as omega-3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control and the coordination, precision and timing of movements, as well as in motor learning. This study investigated the effect of radiofrequency radiation on the structures of the cerebellum of adolescent Wistar rats, its effect on pre-pubertal development and the potential attenuative properties of fish oil omega-3 fat.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Forty (n=40) adolescent Wistar rats of approximately 35 days old were divided into five groups labelled A-E. A 4G RFR-emitting WI-FI device served as the RFR source. The 4G radiofrequency transmitter was installed at a distance of 0.5 meters from the base of the cage housing the experimental animals in each group. The fish oil was administered orally to the animals. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days of treatment and their brains harvested. The cerebellar tissues were excised and processed for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical observations. Neurobehavioural studies including Barnes Maze and beam walk were carried out before sacrifice.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>4G radiofrequency radiation caused distortions in the morphology and spatial arrangement of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar tissues. It also induced neuroinflammation as marked by enhanced astrocyte reactions. Also, behavioural aberrations including negative changes in key memory parameters such as increased latency and error poke in Barnes maze assays, and increased movement parameter errors were attributable to FRR effects. Also, aberrations in neurotransmitters activities levels and vital neurochemistry enzymes were observed. The administered Omega-3 fat had an attenuative effect on the affected cortical structures, neurochemistry and selected neurobehavioural parameters.</p> Fabiyi Oluwaseyi Sunday Ogunbiyi Olubunmi C. Odusote Ifeoluwa Adelakin Lola Olanrewaju John Afees Olatunji Sunday Yinka Owolabi Joshua Oladele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 6 19 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i430159 A Cross Sectional Study on the Mental Health Impacts of Covid-19 Pandemic in a Sample of Nigerian Urban Dwellers https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/30161 <p><strong>Aim:</strong>&nbsp; Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a new type of corona virus first discovered in China in 2019; hence the name COVID-19. Some of its symptoms include cough, fever, and breathing difficulty. In severe cases the disease can lead to death.&nbsp; This study looked at the mental health impacts of COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of Nigerian urban dwellers.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This is a descriptive cross sectional design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study was carried out in Enugu metropolis between the months of January and February 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), The Short Screening Scale for Post traumatic stress disorder, The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2) this study investigated the mental health impacts of COVID-19 pandemic among 520 Nigerian urban dwellers.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results shows that 29.2%; 13.1% and 1.9% had mild, moderate and sever depressive symptoms respectively. Equally 21.9%, 13.3% and 5.4% had mild, moderate and severe anxiety symptoms respectively. Furthermore 37.3% showed signs of psychological distress just as 24.8% manifested symptoms of PTSD. Results further revealed significant associations between psychological distress and gender; PTSD and gender as well as anxiety and gender respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Following the high level of mental health impacts of Covid-19 pandemic noticed among the subjects who took part in the study, it was therefore recommended that psychological testing and psychotherapy be included in the routine testing and management of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria.</p> Friday E. Okwaraji Godwin C. Onyebueke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 28 36 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i430161 Self-stigma in Patients with Schizophrenia in a Psychiatry Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/30162 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Schizophrenia is a devastating and disabling disorder associated with long term negative consequences and may require lifelong treatment. It is often complicated with self-stigma which makes treatment difficult and may be a source of complications. Ensuring good outcome will therefore, involve taking cognizance of self-stigma in the treatment plan. Studies examining self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia is scanty in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia as well as identifying some of the correlates of self-stigma in the patients.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Cross-sectional survey</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Outpatient clinic of a Neuropsychiatry hospital in Lagos state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 320 adult patients with schizophrenia were recruited using a consecutive sampling technique. MINI international Neuropsychiatric interview (Psychotic disorder module) was used to confirm the diagnosis, after which socio-demographic questionnaire and the Internalized Stigma of Mental illness Inventory (ISMI), were administered to the patients. The data was analyzed with SPSS version 16 and the result presented in frequency tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation where necessary.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority of the participants (83.4%) were less than 50 years old, they were mostly females (57.2%), of Yoruba ethnic group (59.7%), Christians (75.6%), and were low-income earners, earning either no income or less than ₦18,000 monthly (72.2%). Also, over four-fifth (86.2%) had good social support.&nbsp; Over a third (38.1%), were married, with about 80 percent of these living with their spouses while 46.5% were never married. The prevalence of self-stigma was <strong>25.3%</strong>. Educational attainment below secondary school and multiple illness episodes were found to predict self-stigma in the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Self-stigma is common in schizophrenia and its consideration in management is necessary for a good treatment outcome.</p> O. Akinjola R. A. Lawal M. O. Abayomi I. I. Adeosun A. A. Adefemi D. A. Adegbaju T. M. Agbir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 37 50 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i430162 Physiotherapy in Down Syndrome: A Literature Review https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/30160 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Down syndrome is a genetic condition arising from three chromosomal abnormalities, namely trisomy 21 (the most well-known); translocation, and/or mosaicism. This chromosome change occurs in the formation of the fetus, in more detail at the time of cell division, which will characterize the signs and symptoms of the syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this article is to research the main scientific findings in the last 10 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;years regarding physical therapy treatments, to verify the best techniques and their respective results, and to address the role of physiotherapy in the development of children with Down syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research only included studies published in the period from 2009 to 2019, systematic review articles and limited the Portuguese and English languages ​​were excluded, excluding all incomplete articles, duplications, abstracts that did not address, and those works that do not have a scientific basis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this systematic review, it can be seen that the main research results were disseminated and stored in databases (SciELO, Medline, and LILACS), focusing on the study of and DS patients, specifical children in early childhood. There are few studies on <em>down syndrome</em> in adults. Another important aspect is the concentration of research in the field of sports physiotherapy, few studies have focused on other areas of physiotherapy, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and cognitive physiotherapy, which go in the opposite direction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Physiotherapy for patients with DS can improve the quality and life expectancy of these individuals, but the needs of patients with this syndrome involve some physical, physiological and psychological aspects and require the attention of a multidisciplinary team.</p> Yasmin Souza Silva Luciana Lane Gomes Da Silva Wellington Carlos Da Silva Agrinazio Geraldo Nascimento Neto Thalita De Sousa Pereira Ana Karoline Campos Araújo Armando Jarib Gonçalves Tavares Rafaella Alves Weber Livia Gomes De Oliveira Nitiele Elizabete Cunha Leonice Costa Luz Jacqueline Aparecida Philipino Takada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-10 2021-05-10 20 27 10.9734/indj/2021/v15i430160