International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal 2020-08-07T23:29:12+00:00 International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2321-7235) </strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/INDJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Neuropsychiatric Disease related research’.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Appraising the Neurobehavioural Toxicity Potential of Aqueous Methanol Leaf Extract of Tapinanthus globiferus Growing on Azadirachta indica 2020-08-07T23:29:12+00:00 A. M. Umarudeen M. G. Magaji <p>The high prevalence and disease burden of anxiety disorders against the paucity and liabilities of existing anxiolytics indicates a need for the discovery of additional/new anti-anxiety agents. However, it is necessary to further screen these new/putative anxiolytic compounds/extracts to rule out the unwanted neurobehavioural toxicities inherent in the existing anti-anxiety drugs. Aqueous methanol leaf extract of <em>Tapinanthus globiferus</em> growing on <em>Azadirachta indica</em> host tree has previously demonstrated significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) anxiolytic effects in mice. This study, therefore, set out to counter-screen this extract for locomotion-suppressant, acute amnesic, sedative (myorelaxant) and hypnotic effects using standard mouse behavioural and biochemical paradigms. The leaf extract (150, 500 and 1500 mg/kg) did not cause significant (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination/balance, sleep onset or duration, but dose-dependent and significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) increases (63.28±5.63, 65.63±4.12 and 69.18±3.69) in novel object recognition indices of extract-treated compared to 51.54±4.03 and 61.06±2.91 scores in diazepam- and aqua-treated mice, respectively. These findings indicate the aqueous methanol leaf extract is mostly devoid of the evaluated neurobehavioural toxicities and may possess short-term memory enhancement property in mice. These findings may justify the traditional use of <em>Tapinanthus globiferus</em> extracts for memory enhancement.</p> 2020-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Caregivers of Children with Heart Diseases in Nigeria 2020-08-07T23:29:10+00:00 Eze U. Chikezie Chika O. Duru Frances S. Okpokowuruk <p><strong>Context: </strong>Caregivers of children with heart diseases are faced with the long term care of these children and may suffer psychological illnesses as a result.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To determine the prevalence and determinants of depression among caregivers of children with heart diseases attending two Out-patient clinics in South-South Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study involving the use of the revised Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD-R) questionnaire. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Ages of the participants ranged from 24 to 59 years with a mean age of 37.49 years (SD 6.973) and majority were female (79.9%). The overall mean CESD-R score was 8.61 (SD 16.18), ranging from 0 to 60. There was a significant difference in the CESD-R scores between male and female participants (t=2.362, p=0.02) with females scoring higher than males (10.24± 17.69&nbsp; and 2.15± 3.13) respectively. Overall, depression was found among 23(17.1%) participants. Depression was significantly associated with the female sex (x<sup>2</sup>=7.006, p=0.009), a history of a mental health illness in the past (x<sup>2</sup>=66.496, p=0.029) and the marital status of the participants (x<sup>2</sup>=19.776, p=0.05). No significant relationship was found between depression and age, religion, tribe and educational status (p&gt;0.05), history of medical illnesses (x<sup>2</sup>=53.006, p=0.538) or type of heart disease the children/wards of the participants were being managed for (x<sup>2</sup>=8.274, p=0.902).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The rate of depression among caregivers of children being managed for congenital and acquired heart diseases in this study is significant. It is recommended that caregivers of children with congenital and acquired heart diseases are routinely given relevant psychosocial support to prevent the development of depression. Routine screening for depression and appropriate intervention for those who meet the criteria is also recommended.</p> 2020-07-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Playing and Its Importance in the Child Psychoanalytic Therapeutic Process 2020-08-07T23:29:11+00:00 Daniela Ponciano Ellen Fernanda Klinger João Victor Ponciano Thamires Reis Amorim Deusimar Noleto Soares <p>When it comes to playing, there is the impression that this is something recreational and fun; however, for psychology and psychoanalysis, this goes beyond recreational lines. Playing has a significant value in human development. This study sought to show the importance of playing in the child's life and in the therapeutic process from the perspective of the psychoanalyst. For psychoanalysis, playing is used as an instrument of evaluation and intervention, allowing the analyst to monitor the child's emotional development. We understand the child's playful activity as an expression of their desires, traumas and the elaboration of their conflicts.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##