https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/issue/feed International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal 2024-06-08T12:41:46+00:00 International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal contact@journalindj.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2321-7235)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/INDJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Neuropsychiatric Disease related research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/437 Interpreting Freudian Concept of Mind and Unconscious at the Time of Fall of Positivism 2024-05-03T12:08:03+00:00 Maria Tereza Gonçalves-Mendes Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira aversiferreira@gmail.com <p>This comment aims to bring Psychoanalysis as the precursor of a new vision about mental processes and the mind as a whole and allies this discovery to the change in the scientific thinking at the time of the beginning of Psychoanalysis, exemplified by the evolutions of quantum and relativistic physics, in counterpoint to the positivism in vogue, i.e., Freud showed a non-positivist thinking elaborating the Psychoanalysis.</p> <p>For this reason, it contextualizes the theories in relation to the brain and to the brain functions at the time of Freud, that sought in each brain region the correspondent for specific functions, exemplified mainly by Gall's phrenology. Although regional correspondents to the function of language have been found, such as Wernicke's and Broca's areas, it has not been possible to date to find specific locations for complex emotions and the behavior, even with Luria's attempts. The possible analysis of a mind that goes beyond the morpho-physiological limits of the brain was Freud's great contribution to the evolution of a scientific thinking regarding mental disorders. Finally, in this text, we intend to place Psychoanalysis as a non-positivist precursor of mind studies.</p> 2024-05-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/438 Cramming Analysis Based on Time to Start Studying and Time the Exam being Held 2024-05-11T07:48:19+00:00 Ekarini Daroedono Alifa Hasna Ramadhani Fachly Ayu Aulia Salshabila Debora Iriani Sanda Pasoro Gabriella Hillary Kambu Fachrul Destrian Restu Fatimatuzzahra Forman Erwin Siagian forman.siagian@uki.ac.id <p><strong>Aims: </strong>to explore the time that crammer start to study and the time of exam being held and relate this two with the result of the remedial exams which conducted electronically (computer based).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> simple descriptive cross sectional study</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> conducted during January to February 2024 in the faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta-Indonesia. Sample: respondents who join the remedial exam during 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> electronic questionnaire regarding time to start studying being distributed prior the exam/test. Sufficient explanation regarding the research is given before consent is politely requested to each exam’s participant. Data obtained from questionnaire were combined with demography data (gender, place of residence) and the result of the exam.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Cramming conducted by 69.7% of our respondents, with the involvement of male student is more common compared to female student and regarding their place of residence, more student that live in their own house with their family do the cramming. Most of the perpetrator started studying at 20.00 – 24.00 pm. Students passing rate in this study were low. Female students score better when they did not cram while only male students who conduct cramming and still fail the exam get a slightly higher mean score than male students who fail the exam and did not cram. Female students got a slightly higher mean score than male students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Cramming is risk taking like gambling behavior. It can give negative impact to the perpetrator’s mental health. The phenomenon of cramming is quite common, especially among male student, but the passing rate was poor. Cramming mostly started late at night. Male students who fail the exam tend to get higher grades if they cramming while on the other hand our female student tend to get higher score in they did not cram.</p> 2024-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/439 Negative Implications of Drug and Substance use on Mental Health 2024-05-11T13:13:06+00:00 Okoye, Nelyn Akunna nelyn.okoyeagbo@gmail.com Udeji, Rosemary Nneka Ordu, Charles Nkesi Aneke, Emeka John Offor, Chinazor Cordelia Asanya, Chinyere Ada <p>Mental health refers to a person's emotional, psychological, and social well-being, which encompasses aspects such as thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and the ability to cope with life's challenges. Several factors including drug abuse have been recognized to cause mental health disorders; hence, the urgent need to globally address these factors. Drug abuse emerges as a complex public health issue, involving the misuse of legal and illegal drugs, with consequences extending beyond individual health. The relationship between mental health and drug abuse intensifies challenges, as drug misuse contributes to the development or worsening of mental health disorders. This review examined biological, psychological, and social determinants, and advocate for a standardized approach to address the complex issue of drug abuse. Various electronic databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, and others, were used to access resources, in which thirty-three (33) literatures were reviewed. Results of the reviewed literatures revealed that the impact of drug abuse on mental health involves neurobiological alterations affecting neurotransmitter levels and structural changes in the brain. This does not only affect individuals, but also results in societal burdens, such as increased healthcare costs and criminal justice involvement, compounded by the stigma surrounding mental health and substance abuse. The classification of drugs into legal and illegal categories highlights the diversity of substances and emphasizes the need to understand their effects on mental well-being. Categories include legal drugs, prescription medications, socially accepted substances, and illegal drugs with varying dependency potentials. Addressing mental health disorders induced by drug abuse requires a comprehensive approach, involving strategies like Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment (IDDT), Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Motivational Interviewing (MI), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Peer Support, 12-Step Programs, and Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care (ROSC). These methods guarantee a care continuum that centers on the individual and emphasizes recovery, acknowledging the relationship between mental health and drug abuse disorders. Nevertheless, the review highlights a research gap in that, in-depth research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the aforementioned interventions. Additionally, exploring innovative strategies to address challenges such as stigma, limited treatment accessibility, and the cyclical nature of addiction would enhance intervention effectiveness.</p> 2024-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/440 Study of the Relation between Aging and Pesticides: A Review 2024-05-13T09:58:25+00:00 Renata Cristina-Pereira Anna Luiza de Araújo Ribeiro Anna Cláudia Ferreira Nunes Luca Casale Guereschi Maria Amália Garcia da Silveira Araújo Maria Tereza Gonçalves-Mendes Kaynara Trevisan Heberson Teixeira da Silva Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira aversiferreira@gmail.com <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The main aim of this study was to use specific data from the literature on ageing, correlating this with the pesticide contamination, in order to understand the relationship with an increasingly ageing population.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A systematic review was performed.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratory of Biomathematics of the Federal University of Alfenas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, between April 2023 and August 2023.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A systematic search of articles was performed using the CAPES Periodic platform, a searcher from the Education Ministry of Brazil that contains Web of Science, Scopus, MedLine, from August 2020 to May 2023. For this review, the subject’s “aging theory”; “neuroscience and pathologies to aging”; “aging and aging-associated changes”; “pesticides and pesticide toxicity”; “pesticide toxicity and neurotoxicity”; “longevity and healthy aging”; “aging human and pesticides” were searched together using the type of material “articles” in English language. Some articles about “population growth”; “world population”; “population-aging” were used for epistemological composition of this work content subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From the 19.720 articles after the exclusion and the inclusion criteria made with the subjects most pertinent to the objectives of this work; 19.570 articles were excluded, remaining 150 ones, of which 116 were qualitative in scope and 34 quantitative.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The complex relationship between the pesticide contamination and the condition of the exposed individual may be associated with premature ageing and a greater susceptibility to debilitating age-related diseases. Although technology is increasingly improved in its innovations, health and environmental regulations have not been able to rid the production processes of their potential to pollute the environment and cause health problems for those exposed to them.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/443 The Main Risks of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Integrative Review 2024-06-08T12:41:46+00:00 Gilmar Dantas De Souza Filho gds.filho24@hotmail.com Henrique Almeida Assis Costa Danielle Araújo Borsari Erasmo Carlos Braulino Plínio Regino Magalhães Pericles Cristiano Batista Flores Solange Aparecida Caetano Elaine Aparecida Leoni Thaisa Silva de Sousa Marco Aurélio Aparecido Lucio <p>The consumption of alcoholic beverages by pregnant women poses a significant risk of harming the fetus, leading to permanent and irreversible physical, cognitive, and behavioral alterations. It can manifest as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol Effect, impair fetal development, and cause delays in labor. Identifying the consequences of maternal alcoholism on the fetus and newborn is crucial due to the toxic effects of ethanol and alcohol exposure biomarkers. This study presents an integrative literature review. Scientific articles available from 2009 to 2020 were searched and analyzed. According to the studies reviewed, alcohol consumption has increased over the years, particularly among women, especially adolescents, often as a result of life dissatisfaction. The research highlights the significant health risks associated with early alcohol consumption for both pregnant women and fetuses. Prevention of alcohol use is the most effective method to address this issue. These findings underscore the importance of healthcare professionals in implementing actions that support both users of the healthcare system and health promotion efforts.</p> 2024-06-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/441 The Indiscriminate Use of Pesticides could Increase the Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Review 2024-05-15T12:11:34+00:00 Kaynara Trevisan Renata Cristina-Pereira Breno Régis Santos Paulo Eduardo Mendonça Heberson Teixeira da Silva Maria Tereza Gonçalves-Mendes Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira aversiferreira@gmail.com <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This review aims to perform an extensive literature search about the pesticides problems and to associate with AD in qualitative analysis, mainly.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Biomathematics Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil. Entre outubro de 2023 a abril de 2024.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For the purpose of this systematic review, articles from 2014 onwards with the descriptors Alzheimer's disease and pesticides; neurodegenerative diseases and pesticides, were sought. Among these, articles considered most pertinent to the objective of the present review were utilized, i.e., those whose subject matter was associated with the effects of pesticides, especially glyphosate, on dementias, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After analyzed 35,590 articles, and applying exclusion criteria to journals with an impact factor equal to or lower than 4 and including topics most relevant to the objectives of this work, 35,526 articles were excluded, resulting in 64 remaining articles, of which 40 were qualitative in scope and 24 were quantitative. The articles considered most suitable for the objective of the present review were utilized, i.e., those whose topic was associated with the effects of pesticides, especially glyphosate, on dementia. The criteria for scrutinizing articles included a journal impact factor equal to or greater than 4 and the removal of duplicate articles using the freely accessible EndNote program from Web of Science. Articles and books on history and those outside the scope of the pesticide/AD relationship did not follow the criterion of having an impact factor equal to or greater than 4.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There appears to be a relationship between the increase in pesticide use, particularly Glyphosate, and the rise in Alzheimer's disease prevalence.</p> 2024-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalindj.com/index.php/INDJ/article/view/442 Schematic Brief Outline: Bulimia Nervosa and its Medical-Based Management 2024-05-30T09:41:14+00:00 Yash Srivastav neelashsrv76@gmail.com Mohd Faijan Mansoori Aditya Srivastav Aniket Kumar <p>The disease known as bulimia nervosa, which is typified by purging and binge eating, usually starts in adolescence and peaks at the age of 18. The ratio of female to male patients varies from 10:1 to 20:1, with a lifetime frequency of 3 per cent. The majority of bulimic individuals also suffer from other mental illnesses, such as depression or anxiety. Additionally, there is a correlation between substance misuse and promiscuity. Bulimia nervosa was initially identified as a "chronic phase of anorexia nervosa" in 1979 by British psychiatrist Gerald Russell. During this stage, patients overeat and resort to compensatory methods such as self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or extended periods of deprivation. For three months, bingeing and purging episodes occurring at least once a week are typically associated with a bulimia diagnosis. However, even infrequent binge and purge behaviours can be harmful and require medical attention. The severity of the bulimia increases with the frequency of the bouts. Family therapy and individual treatment are frequently used to treat bulimia. The goal is to address any dietary issues and modify your behaviour. The relationship between your thoughts, feelings, and behaviours is examined in therapy. We go over the aetiology, epidemiology, current treatment, and state of bulimia nervosa in this review study.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.