Main Article Content
Background: Speech fluency disorder(SFD), a common disorder is reported in all age groups of people but most commonly in children around the world.
Objective: This study aimed to review critically several aspects of SFD, specifically epidemiological parameters, etiological foundations, clinical and treatment perspectives.
Methods: Electronic searches of relevant data published (1970-2020) in PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases were made using the Boolean operators and keywords and following iterative process 194 papers selected for this review.
Results: Speech fluency disorder presents in a variety of forms including acquired neurogenic and psychogenic stuttering is a complex, challenging neurological disorder. SFD is determined by diverse biopsychosocial and cultural etiologies, commonly afflicts male children at age 2-3 years compared to their counterparts (4:1 ratio). SFD manifests a variety of signs and symptoms, and up to 85% children who stutter improves spontaneously with or without intervention. Childhood developmental stuttering (CDS) persists in 1-2% of adults and persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is again male-gender condition. Persons who stutter (PWS) are managed by non-pharmacological especially speech therapy and pharmacological interventions in particular dopamine antagonists. Gender, early intervention, chronicity, severity, language skills, and comorbid conditions mainly determine the prognosis and outcome of stuttering.
Conclusion: Extensive data concerning different perspectives of SFD is published globally, and projected better understanding of most speech disfluencies. Nonetheless, research need to be conducted to develop and provide better quality services to all PWS and to reduce the discrimination against PWS around the world.
Van Borsel J. Acquired stuttering: A note on terminology. J Neurolinguistics. 2014; 27:41-49.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Task Force. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5TM, 5th Edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc; 2013.
Sander RW, Osborne CA. Stuttering: Understanding and treating a common disability. American Family Physician. 2019; 100(9):556-60.
Smith A, Weber C. How stuttering develops: The multifactorial dynamics pathway theory. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017;60(9):2483-2505.
Neef NE, Anwander A, Friederici AD. The neurobiological grounding of persistent stuttering: from structure to function. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2015;15(9):63.
Tichenor SE, Yaruss JS. Stuttering as defined by adults who stutter. Journal Speech, Language, Hearing Research. 2019;62(12):4356-4369.
Kefalianos E, Onslow M, Packman A, Vogel A, Pezic A, Mensah F et al. The history of stuttering by 7 years of age: Follow-up of a prospective community cohort. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017; 60(10):2828-2839.
Kefalianos E, Onslow M, Packman A, Vogel A, Pezic A, Mensah F et al. [Erratum] The history of stuttering by 7 years of age: Follow-up of a prospective community cohort. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2018; 61(10);2516-2516.
De Sonneville-Koedoot C, Stolk E, Rietveld T, Franken MC. Direct versus indirect treatment for preschool children who stutter: The RESTART randomized trial. PLOS One. 2015;10(7):e0133758.
Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H et al. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009;132(10):2747-2760.
Yairi E, Ambrose N. Epidemiology of stuttering: 21st century advances. Journal of fluency disorders. 2013;38(2):66-87.
Alm PA. Stuttering and the basal ganglia circuits: A critical review of possible relations. Journal of Communication Disorders. 2004;37(4):325-369. Stuttering. Available:https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stuttering/symptoms-causes/syc-20353572 Accessed on November 15, 2020.
Tani T, Sakai Y. Analysis of five cases with neurogenic stuttering following brain injury in the basal ganglia. J Fluency Disord. 2011; 36:1-16.
Prasse JE, Kikano GE. Stuttering: An overview. Am Fam Physician. 2008;9: 1271-1276. Lesson AB. The causes of stuttering. Available:https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5e79870b18dedc255409dc0e/t/5eb2fe23154e393ade2e4f5a/1588788779534/
Fagnani C, Fibiger S, Skytthe A, Hjelmborg JV. Heritability and environmental effects for self-reported periods with stuttering: A twin study from Denmark. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. 2011;36(3):114-20.
Rautakoski P, Hannus T, Simberg S, Sandnabba NK, Santtila P. Genetic and environmental effects on stuttering: A twin study from Finland. J. Fluency Disord. 2012; 37:202–210.
Packman A, Kuhn L. Looking at stuttering through the lens of complexity. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2009; 11:77–82.
Baumgartner J, Duffy JR: Psychogenic stuttering in adults with and without neurologic disease. J Med Speech Lang Pathol. 1997;5(2):75–95.
Theys C, van Wieringen A, De Nil LF. A clinician survey of speech and non-speech characteristics of neurogenic stuttering. J Fluency Disord. 2008;33(1):1–23.
Trenque T, Claustre G, Herlem E, Djerada Z, Trenque A, Morel A, Azzouz B. Methylphenidate and stuttering. British Journal Clinical Pharmacology. 2019; 85(11):2634-724.
McLean MD, McLean A: Case-report of stuttering acquired in association with phenytoin use for post-head injury seizures. J Fluency Disord. 1985; 10(4):241–55.
Stager SV, Calis K, Grothe D, Bloch M, Berensen NM, Smith PJ et al. Treatment with medications affecting dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms: Effects on fluency and anxiety in persons who stutter. J Fluency Disord. 2005;30(4):319-335.
Bar KJ, Hager F, Sauer H. Olanzapine and clozapine-induced stuttering. Pharmacopsychiatry.2004;37(3):131-3426.
Norman RS, Jaramillo CA, Eapen BC, Amuan ME, Pugh MJ. Acquired stuttering in veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan: The role of traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medications. Military Medicine. 2018; 183(11-12):e526-e534.
Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein K. Stuttering following acquired brain damage: A review of the literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2009; 5:447-454.
Catalano G, Robben DL, Catalano MC. Treatment of acquired neurogenic stuttering. J Psychiatr Pract.2009; 15:484-488.
Sechi G, Cocco GA, D’Onofrio M, Deriu M, Rosati G. Disfluent speech in patients with partial epilepsy: Beneficial effect of levetiracetam. Epilepsy Behav. 2006;9: 521-3.
Maguire GA, Yu BP, Franklin DL, Riley GD. Alleviating stuttering with pharmacological interventions. Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy. 2004;5(7): 1565-1571.
Al-Khaledi M, Lincoln M, McCabe P, Alshatti T. Attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs of Arab speech-language pathologists about stuttering. Speech, Language and Hearing. 2014;17(3):168-80.
Alghunaim MN, Abdullah AM, Alshaibi S, Alfehaid O, Albagami M, Omair A, Anjum I. Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: A case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. International Journal Medicine Developing Countries. 2020;4(3): 645–651.
Kaddah FE, Mesallam TA, Shoeib RM, Abdelgoad AA. Anxiety profile in children and adolescents with stuttering. Egyptian Journal Ear, Nose, Throat Allied Sciences. 2020;21(2):37-43.
Al-Khaledi M, Lincoln M, McCabe P, Alshatti T. The Lidcombe Program: A series of case studies with Kuwaiti preschool children who stutter. Speech, Language Hearing. 2018;21(4):224-35.
Al-Nafjan A, Al-Wabil A, AlMudhi A, Hosny M. Measuring and monitoring emotional changes in children who stutter. Computers Biology Medicine. 2018; 102:138-150.
Alharbi ES. The effectiveness of individual and integration approaches for treated children and adolescents who stutter: A systematic review from 1990 to2018. Journal Education.2019; 69:47.
Fassetti F, Fassetti I, Nisticò S. Learning and detecting stuttering disorders. In; IFIP international conference on artificial intelligence applications and innovations. Springer, Cham. 2019;319-330.
Mattingly EO. Dysfluency in a service member with comorbid diagnosis: A case study. Mil Med.2015; 180:e157-159.
Perez HR, Stoeckle JH. Stuttering: Clinical and research update. Canadian Family Physician.2016; 62:479-84.
Månsson H. Childhood stuttering: Incidence and development. Journal Fluency Disorders.2000; 25(1):47-57.
Andrews G, Craig A. Prediction of outcome after treatment for stuttering. British Journal Psychiatry.1988;153: 236-240.
Andrews G, Hoddinott S, Craig A, Howie P, Feyer AM, Neilson M. Stuttering: A review of research findings and theories circa 1982. Journal Speech Hearing Disorders.1983;48(3):226-246.
Yairi E. Future research and clinical directions in stuttering: Global considerations. The Stuttering Foundation Summer; 2016. Available:www.StutteringHelp.org
Reilly S, Onslow M, Packman A, Wake M, Bavin EL, Prior M et al. Predicting stuttering onset by the age of 3 years: A prospective, community cohort study. Pediatrics. 2009; 123:270–277.
Reilly S, Onslow M, Packman A, Cini E, ConwayL, Ukoumunne OC et al. Natural history of stuttering to 4 years of age: A prospective community-based study. Pediatrics.2013; 132:460-467.
Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve LA, Cohen RA, Blumberg SJ, Yeargin-Allsopp M et al. Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997-2008. Pediatrics. 2011; 127:1034-1042.
Frigerio-Domingues C, Drayna D. Genetic contributions to stuttering: The current evidence. Molecular Genetics Genomic Medicine. 2017;5(2):95-102.
Ooki S. Genetic and environmental influences on stuttering and tics in Japanese twin children. Twin. Res. Hum. Genet.2005; 8:69-75.
Wittke-Thompson JK, Ambrose N, Yairi E, Roe C, Cook EH, Ober C et al. Genetic studies of stuttering in a founder population. J Fluency Disord. 2007; 32:33-50.
Lan J, Song M, Pan C, Zhuang G, Wang Y, Ma W, et al. Association between dopaminergic genes (SLC6A3 and DRD2) and stuttering among Han Chinese. J Hum Genet. 2009;54(8):457-60.
Domingues CE, Olivera CM, Oliveira BV, Juste FS, Andrade CR, Giacheti CM, et al. A genetic linkage study in Brazil identifies a new locus for persistent developmental stuttering on chromosome 10. Genet Mol Res. 2014;13(1):2094-101.
Riaz N, Steinberg S, Ahmad J, Pluzhnikov A, Riazuddin S, Cox NJ et al. Genome-wide significant linkage to stuttering on chromosome 12. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76(4):647-51.
Kang C, Riazuddin S, Mundorff J, Krasnewich D, Friedman P, Mullikin JC et al. Mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway and persistent stuttering. N. Engl. J. Med.2010; 362:677-685.
Shugart YY, Mundorff J, Kilshaw J, Doheny K, Doan B, Wanyee J et al. Results of a genome-wide linkage scan for stuttering. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;124A(2):133-135.
Kraft SJ. Genome-wide association study of persistent developmental stuttering [doctoral dissertation]. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2010.
Montag C, Bleek B, Faber J, Reuter M. The role of the DRD2 C957Tpolymorphism in neuroticism in persons who stutter and healthy controls. Neuroreport.2012; 23: 246–250.
Chen H, Wang G, Xia J, Zhou Y, Gao Y, Xu J et al. Stuttering candidate genes DRD2 but not SLC6A3 is associated with developmental dyslexia in Chinese population. Behav. Brain Funct.2014; 10:29.
Kang C, Domingues BS, Sainz E, Domingues CE, Drayna D, Moretti-Ferreira D. Evaluation of the association between polymorphisms at the DRD2 locus and stuttering. J Hum Genet. 2011; 56(6):472-473.
Suresh R, Ambrose N, Roe C, Pluzhnikov A, Wittke-Thompson JK, Ng MC, et al. New complexities in the genetics of stuttering: significant sex-specific linkage signals. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78(4):554-563.
Dworzynski K, Remington A, Rijsdijk F, Howell P, Plomin R. Genetic etiology in cases of recovered and persistent stuttering in an unselected, longitudinal sample of young twins. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2007;16(2):169-178.
Ingham RJ, Ingham JC, Euler HA, Neumann K. Stuttering treatment and brain research in adults: A still unfolding relationship. Journal Fluency Disorders. 2018; 55:106-19.
Chang SE, Zhu DC. Neural network connectivity differences in children who stutter. Brain. 2013; 136(12):3709-3726.
Chang SE, Erickson KI, Ambrose NG, Hasegawa-Johnson MA, Ludlow CL. Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering. Neuroimage.2008; 39(3):1333-1344.
Rouse MH. Neuroanatomy for speech-language pathology and audiology. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2019.
Chang SE, Chow HM, Wieland EA, McAuley JD. Relation between functional connectivity and rhythm discrimination in children who do and do not stutter. NeuroImage Clinical. 2016; 12:442-450.
Chang SE, Zhu DC, Choo AL, Angstadt M. White matter neuroanatomical differences in young children who stutter. Brain. 2015;138(3):694-711.
Falk S, Müller T, Dalla Bella S. Non-verbal sensorimotor timing deficits in children and adolescents who stutter. Frontiers Psychology.2015; 6:847.
Tourville JA, Guenther FH. The DIVA model: A neural theory of speech acquisition and production. Language Cognitive Processes. 2011;26(7):952-981.
Kara MZ, Örüm MH, Sekmen E. Is there a relationship between basophil, platelet-related parameters and developmental stuttering? Anatolian Journal Psychiatry. 2020;21(2):187-194.
Hu YB, Dammer EB, Ren RJ, Wang G. The endosomal-lysosomal system: From acidification and cargo sorting to neurodegeneration. Translational Neurodegeneration. 2015;4(1):18.
Ludo M, Guenther FH, Gracco VL, Ghosh SS, Wallace ME. Unstable or insufficiently activated internal models and feedback-biased motor control as sources of dysfluency: A theoretical model of stuttering. Contemp Issues Commun Sci Disord.2004;31:105-122.
Wu JC, Maguire GA, Riley GD, Lee A, Keator D, Tang C et al. Increased dopamine activity associated with stuttering. Neuroreport.1997; 8(3):767-770.
Mawson AR, Radford NT, Jacob B. Toward a Theory of Stuttering. Eur Neurol. 2016; 76:244-251.
Alm PA. Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: Review and analysis with focus on causality. J Fluency Disord.2014; 40:5-21.
Garcia-Barrera MA, Davidow JH. Anticipation in stuttering: A theoretical model of the nature of stutter prediction. J Fluency Disord. 2015; 44:1-15.
Jackson ES, Yaruss JS, Quesal RW, Terranova V, Whalen DH. Responses of adults who stutter to the anticipation of stuttering. J Fluency Disord.2015; 45:38-51.
Etchell AC, Johnson BW, Sowman PF. Behavioral and multimodal neuroimaging evidence for a deficit in brain timing networks in stuttering: A hypothesis and theory. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:467.
Watkins K. Developmental disorders of speech and language: From genes to brain structure and function. Prog Brain Res. 2011; 189:225-238.
Ludlow CL, Loucks T. Stuttering: A dynamic motor control disorder. J Fluency Disord. 2003;28: 273-295
Drayna D, Kang C: Genetic approaches to understanding the causes of stuttering. J Neurodev Disord.2011; 3:374-380.
Kang C, Drayna D: A role for inherited metabolic deficits in persistent developmental stuttering. Mol Genet Metab.2012; 107:276-280.
Roth CR, Cornis-Pop M, Beach WA. Examination of validity in spoken language evaluations: Adult onset stuttering following mild traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabilitation.2015; 36:415-426.
Peters KB, Turner S. Acquired stuttering due to recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;2013. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-009562
Theys C, Wieringen AV, Sunaert S, Thijs V, De Nil LF. A one-year prospective study of neurogenic stuttering following stroke: Incidence and co-occurring disorders. J Commun Disord.2011; 44:678-687.
Cruz C, Amorim H, Beça G, Nunes R. Neurogenic stuttering: A review of the literature. Rev Neurol.2018; 66:59-64.
Burch J, Kiernan T, Demaerschalk B. Neurogenic stuttering with right hemisphere stroke: A case presentation. J Neurolinguistic.2013; 26:207-13.
Silbergleit AK, Feit H, Silbergleit R. Neurogenic stuttering in corticobasal ganglionic degeneration: A case report. J Neurolinguistics.2009; 22:83-90.
Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: A case study. J Fluency Disord.2010; 35:141-5.
Wazeer MM, John S, Rajashekhar B. Neurogenic speech sequelae following suicide attempt by hanging: A case report. Int J Adolesc Med Health; 2017. DOI: 10.1515/ijamh-2015-0039
Costa D, Kroll R: Stuttering: An update for physicians. CMAJ. 2000;162(13):1849–55.
Menon DK, Schwab K, Wright DW, Maas AI: Position statement: definition of traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(11):1637–1640.
Ludlow CL, Dooman AG. Genetic aspects of idiopathic speech and language disorders. Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 1992; 25:979-994.
Maguire GA, Viele SN, Agarwal S, Handler E, Franklin D. Stuttering onset associated with streptococcal infection: a case suggesting stuttering as PANDAS. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry. 2010; 22:283-284.
Comings DE. DSM-IV criteria for Tourette’s. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995; 34(4):401-402.
Balasubramanian V, Max L. Crossed apraxia of speech: A case report. Brain Cogn.2004; 55:240-246.
Van Borsel J, Taillieu C: Neurogenic stuttering versus developmental stuttering: an observer judgment study. J Commun Disord.2001; 34:385-395.
Penttilä N, Korpijaakko-Huuhka A-M: New guidelines for assessing neurogenic stuttering. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci.2015; 193:310-313.
Cornis-Pop M, Mashima PA, Roth CR, et al: Guest editorial: cognitive communication rehabilitation for combat-related mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49(7):xi–xxxii.
Theys C, De Nil L, Thijs V, Van Wieringen A. A crucial role for the cortico-striato-cortical loop in the pathogenesis of stroke-related neurogenic stuttering. Hum Brain Mapp.2012; 34:2103-2112.
Busan P, Del Ben G, Russo LR, Bernardini S, Natarelli G, Arcara G, et al. Stuttering as a matter of delay in neural activation: A combined TMS/EEG study. Clin. Neurophysiol.2019;130:61-76.
Trenque T, Claustre G, Herlem E, Djerada Z, Trenque A, Morel A, Azzouz B. Methylphenidate and stuttering. British Journal Clinical Pharmacology.2019; 85(11):2634-7.
McClean MD, McLean A: Case-report of stuttering acquired in association with phenytoin use for post-head injury seizures. J Fluency Disord.1985;10(4): 241-255.
Tani T, Wada N. Stuttering and compulsive manipulation of tools after hemorrhage in the anterior corpus callosum and cingulate gyrus: A case study. Speech, Language and Hearing. 2018;21(4):256-63.
Baumgartner J, Duffy JR: Psychogenic stuttering in adults with and without neurologic disease. J Med Speech Lang Pathol. 1997;5(2):75–95.
Ward D. Sudden onset stuttering in an adult: Neurogenic and psychogenic perspectives. J Neurolinguistics. 2010; 23:511-517.
Almada A, Simoes R, Constante M, Casquinha P, Heitor MJ. Psychogenic stuttering: A case and review (EV404). 24thEuropean Congress of Psychiatry/European Psychiatry. 2016;335:S290-S643.
Seery CH. Differential diagnosis of stuttering for forensic purposes. Am J Speech Lang Pathol.2005; 14:284-297.
Mouradian MS, Paslawski T, Shuaib A. Return of stuttering after stroke. Brain Lang. 2000;73(1):120-123.
Balasubramanian V, Max L, Van Borsel J, Rayca KO, Richardson D. Acquired stuttering following right frontal and bilateral pontine lesion: A case study. Brain Cogn.2003;53(2):185-189.
Sahin HA, Krespi Y, Yilmaz A, Coban O. Stuttering due to ischemic stroke. Behav Neurol. 2005;16(1):37–39.
Ajdacic-Gross V, Bechtiger L, Rodgers S, MuÈller M, Kawohl W, von KaÈnel R et al. Subtypes of stuttering determined by latent class-analysis in two Swiss epidemiological surveys. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(8):e0198450.
Craig A, Tran Y. Trait and social anxiety in adults with chronic stuttering: Conclusions following meta-analysis. Journal Fluency Disorders.2014; 40:35-43.
Baxter S, Johnson M, Blank L, Cantrell A, Brumfitt S, Enderby P et al. The state of the art in non-pharmacological interventions for developmental stuttering. Part 1: A systematic review of effectiveness. International Journal Language Communication Disorders. 2015; 50:676-718.
Johnson M, Baxter S, Blank L, Cantrell A, Brumfitt S, Enderby P, Goyder E. The state of the art in non‐pharmacological interventions for developmental stuttering. Part 2: Qualitative evidence synthesis of views and experiences. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2016;51(1):3-17.
Weir E, Bianchet S. Developmental dysfluency: Early intervention is key. CMAJ. 2004;170(12):1790-1
Fluckiger C, Del Re AC, Wampold BE, Horvath AO. The alliance in adult psychotherapy: A meta-analytic synthesis. Psychotherapy.2018;55:316-340.
Sønsterud H, Kirmess M, Howells k, Ward D, Feragen KB, Halvorsen MS. The working alliance in stuttering treatment: A neglected variable? Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2019;54(4):606-619.
Qiao J, Wang Z, Zhao G, Huo Y, Herder CL, Sikora CO, Peterson BS. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering. PLOS One. 2017;12(7):e0179255. Definitions of communication disorders and variations; 1993. Available: https://www.asha.org/policy/RP1993-00208/
Ambrose NG, Yairi E. Normative disfluency data for early childhood stuttering. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1999;42(4):895-909.
Riley J, Riley G, Maguire GA. Subjective screening of stuttering severity, locus of control, and avoidance: Research edition. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2004;29(1):51-62.
Beilby J: Psychosocial impact of living with a stuttering disorder: Knowing is not enough. Semin Speech Lang. 2014;35(2):132-43.
Blumgart E, Tran Y, Craig A: An investigation into the personal financial costs associated with stuttering. J Fluency Disord. 2010;35(3):203-215.
Klein JF, Hood SB. The impact of stuttering on employment opportunities and job performance. J Fluency Disord. 2004;29(4):255-273.
Koedoot C, Bouwmans C, Franken MC, Stolk E. Quality of life in adults who stutter. J Commun Disord. 2011;44(4):429-443.
Craig A, Blumgart E, Tran Y. The impact of stuttering on the quality of life in adults who stutter. J Fluency Disord. 2009;34(2):61-71.
Iverach L, Rapee RM. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: current status and future directions. J Fluency Disord. 2014; 40:69-82.
Craig-McQuaide A, Akram H, Zrinzo L, Tripoliti E. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:884.
Broekelmann M, Wright-Jones L. Fluency and sound system disorder: What to do? Available:file:///C:/Users/quraishi-n/Downloads/ua-slp-posters-Broekelmann.pdf
Blood GW, Ridenour Jr VJ, Qualls CD, Hammer CS. Co-occurring disorders in children who stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders. 2003;36(6):427-48.
Lankman RS, Yaruss JS, Franken MC. Validation and evaluation of the Dutch translation of the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for School-age children (OASES-SD). Journal Fluency Disorders.2015; 45:27-37.
Jaramillo CA, Cooper DB, Wang CP et al. Subgroups of US IRAQ and Afghanistan veterans: Associations with traumatic brain injury and mental health conditions. Brain Imaging Behav. 2015;9(3):445–55.
Vasterling JJ, Verfaellie M, Sullivan KD: Mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder in returning veterans: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. Clin Psychol Rev. 2009;29(8):674–84.
Rima D, Malikova S, Aratuly K, Bazilova A, Beaver KM. Examining the association between stuttering and psychopathic personality traits, nonviolent crime, and violent crime. Journal Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. 2020;1-4.
Spencer C, Weber-Fox C. Preschool speech articulation and non-word repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Journal Fluency Disorders; 2014.
Nippold MA. Stuttering and phonology: Is there an interaction? American Journal Speech-Language Pathology. 2002;11(2):99-110.
Ryan BP. A longitudinal study of articulation, language, rate, and fluency of 22 preschool children who stutter. Journal Fluency Disorders. 2001;26(2):107-127.
Choo AL, Smith SA, Li H. Associations between stuttering, comorbid conditions and executive function in children: a population-based study. BMC Psychology. 2020;8(1):1-9.
Menzies RG, O’Brian S, Onslow M, Packman A, Clare TS, Block S. An experimental clinical trial of a cognitive-behavior therapy package for chronic stuttering. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 2008; 51:1451–1464.
Yairi E, Ambrose NG, Paden EP, Throneburg RN. Predictive factors of persistence and recovery: Pathways of childhood stuttering. J Commun Disord.1996;29(1):51-77.
Ntourou K, Conture EG, Lipsey MW. Language abilities of children who stutter: A Meta-Analytical Review. American Journal Speech-Language Pathology. 2011;20(3):163–179.
Maguire GA, Riley GD, Franklin DL, Gottshalk LA. Risperidone for the treatment of stuttering. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.2000;20:479-482.
Maguire GA, Riley GD, Franklin DL, Maguire ME, Yu BP, Nguyen CT, et al. Olanzapine in the treatment of developmental stuttering: A double-blind, placebo- controlled trial. Annals Clinical Psychiatry. 2004;16(2):63-67.
Wallace IF, Berkman ND, Watson LR et al. Screening for speech and language delay in children 5 years old and younger: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 2015;136(2):e448-e462.
Bernstein Ratner N. Selecting treatments and monitor¬ing outcomes: The circle of evidence-based practice and client-centered care in treating a preschool child who stutters. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2018;49(1):13-22.
Baxter S, Johnson M, Blank L et al. Non-pharmacological treatments for stuttering in children and adults: A system¬atic review and evaluation of clinical effectiveness, and exploration of barriers to successful outcomes. Health Technol Assess. 2016;20(2):1-302, v-vi.
Vanhoutte S, Cosyns M, van Mierlo P, et al. When will a stut¬tering moment occur? The determining role of speech motor preparation. Neuropsychologia.2016; 86: 93-102.
Chang SE. Research updates in neuroimaging studies of children who stutter. Semin Speech Lang. 2014;35(2):67-79.
Langevin M, Packman A, Onslow M. Parent perceptions of the impact of stuttering on their preschoolers and them-selves. J Commun Disord. 2010;43(5):407-423.
Banerjee S, Casenhiser D, Hedinger T, Kittilstved T, Saltuklaroglu T. The perceived impact of stuttering on personality as measured by the NEO-FFI-3. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol.2017;42(1):22-28.
Smith KA, Iverach L, O’Brian S, et al. Anxiety of children and adolescents who stutter: A review. J Fluency Disord.2014; 40:22-34.
Iverach L, Jones M, McLellan LF, Lyneham HJ, Menzies RG, Onslow M et al. Prevalence of anx¬iety disorders among children who stutter. J Fluency Dis¬ord. 2016; 49:13-28.
Guttormsen LS, Kefalianos E, Næss KA. Communication attitudes in children who stutter: A meta-analytic review. J Fluency Disord.2015 ;46:1-14. [published correction appears in J Fluency Disord. 2018;56:122].
Corcoran JA, Stewart M. Stories of stuttering. J Fluency Disord.1998;23:247-264.
Crichton-Smith I. Communicating in the real world: Accounts from people who stammer. J Fluency Disord.2002; 27:333-51.
Gunn A, Menzies RG, O’Brian S, Onslow M, Packman A, Lowe R et al. Axis I anxiety and mental health disorders among stuttering adolescents. J Fluency Disord. 2014; 40:58-68.
Iverach L, Jones M, O’Brian S, Block S, Lincoln M, Harrison E et al. Mood and substance use disorders among adults seeking speech treatment for stuttering. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2010;53(5):1178-90.
Perez HR, Doig-Acuna C, Starrels JL. “Not unless it’s a life or death thing”: A qualitative study of the health care experiences of adults who stutter. J GenIntern Med. 2015;30(11):1639-1644.
Wells PG, Malcolm MT. Controlled trial of the treatment of 36 stutterers. Br JPsychiatry.1971;119(553):603-604.
Hayhow R, Cray AM, Enderby P. Stammering and therapy views of people who stammer. J Fluency Disord.2002;2 7:1-16.
Andrews G, Feyer AM. Does behavior therapy still work when the experimenters depart? An analysis of a behavioral treatment program for stuttering. Behav Modif.1985;9(4):443-457.
Craig A, Andrews G. The prediction and prevention of relapse in stuttering. The value of self-control techniques and locus of control measures. Behav Modif.1985; ]9(4):427–442.
Blomgren M, Roy N, Callister T, Merrill RM. Intensive stuttering modification therapy: A multidimensional assessment of treatment outcomes. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2005;48(3):509–523.
Menzies RG, Onslow M, Packman A, O’Brian S. Cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter: A tutorial for speech-language pathologists. J Fluency Disord. 2009;34(3):187-200.
Bothe AK, Davidow JH, Bramlett RE, Ingham RJ. Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: I. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive, and related approaches. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2006;15(4):321-341.
O’Brian S, Jones M, Packman A, Menzies R, Onslow M. Stuttering severity and educational attainment. J Fluency Disord. 2011; 36:86-92.
Finn P. Addressing generalization and maintenance of stuttering treatment in the schools: a critical look. Journal Communication Disorders.2003; 36:153-164.
Bridgman K, Onslow M, O’Brian S, Jones M, Block S. Lidcombe program webcam treatment for early stuttering: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Speech, Language, Hearing Research. 2016;59(5):932-939.
Craig A, Hancock K, Chang E, McCready C, Shepley A, McCaul A, et al. A controlled clinical trial for stuttering in persons aged 9 to 14 years. J. Speech Hear Res.1996; 39: 808–826.
Krishnan G, Tiwari S. Revisiting the acquired neurogenic stuttering in the light of developmental stuttering. J Neurolinguistics.2011; 24:383-396.
Ritto AP, Juste FS, Stuart A, Kalinowski J, de Andrade CR. Randomized clinical trial: The use of SpeechEasy® in stuttering treatment. International Journal Language Communication Disorders. 2016;51(6):769-774.
Lochhead JD, Nelson MA, Lake K, Flick R, Maguire GA. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder with implications for improvements in stuttering. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry.2016; 28:68–69.
Chesters J, Möttönen R, Watkins KE. Transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal cortex improves speech fluency in adults who stutter. Brain. 2018; 141:1161–1171.
Neumann K, Euler HA, Kob M, von Gudenberg A, Giraud AL, Weissgerber T et al. Assisted and unassisted recession of functional anomalies associated with dysprosody in adults who stutter. J. Fluency Disord.2018;55:120–134.
Wolk L. Treating stuttering and phonological disorders in young children. Retrieved from ASHA convention, San Diego (Quoted from 130); 2011.
Ko Koehlinger KM, Louko L, Zebrowsk. EBP Briefs. 2014;8(6):1-9. (Quoted from 130).
Van Borsel J, Drummond D, de Britto Pereira MM. Delayed auditory feedback and acquired neurogenic stuttering. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2010;23(5):479-87.
McGill M, Noureal N, Siegel J. Telepractice treatment of stuttering: A systematic review. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2019;25(5):359-368.
Stidham KR, Olson L, Hillbratt M, Sinopoli T. A new anti-stuttering device: Treatment of stuttering using bone conduction stimulation with delayed temporal feedback. Laryngoscope.2006; 116(11): 1951-1955.
Menzies R, O’Brian S, Packman A, Jones M, Helgadóttir FD, Onslow M. Supplementing stuttering treatment with online cognitive behavior therapy: An experimental trial. Journal Communication Disorders.2019; 80:81-91.
Bernstein Ratner N. Selecting treatments and monitoring outcomes: The circle of evidence-based practice and client-centered care in treating a preschool child who stutters. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2018;49(1):13-22.
Bothe AK, Davidow JH, Bramlett RE, Franic DM, Ingham RJ. Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: II. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of pharmacological approaches. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2006;15(4):342-352.
Rosenberger PB, Wheelden JA, Kalotkin M. The effect of haloperidol on stuttering. The American Journal Psychiatry.1976; 133(3):331–334.
Brady JP. The pharmacology of stuttering: A critical review. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1991;148(10):1309-1316.
Brady JP. Drug-induced stuttering: A review of the literature. Journal Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1998;18(1):50-54.
Büchel C, Sommer M. What Causes Stuttering? PLoS Biol. 2004;2(2): e46.
Catalano G, Robben DL, Catalano MC. Olanzapine for the treatment of acquired neurogenic stuttering. J Psychiatr Pract. 2009; 15:484-488.
Shaygannejad V, Khatoonabadi SA, Shafiei B, Ghasemi M, Fatehi F, Meamar R et al. Olanzapine versus haloperidol: which can control stuttering better? Int. J. Prev. Med. 2013;4(Suppl. 2):S270–S273.
Charoensook J, Maguire GA. A case series on the effectiveness of lurasidone in patients with stuttering. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry.2017; 29:191-194.
Munjal S, Schultheis G, Ferrando S. Ziprasidone for the Treatment of Stuttering. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.2018 ; 38:404-405.
Hoang JL, Patel S, Maguire GA. Case report of aripiprazole in the treatment of adolescent stuttering. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry.2016; 28:64-65.
Tran NL, Maguire GA, Franklin DL, Riley GD. Case report of aripiprazole for persistent developmental stuttering. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.2008; 28:470-472.
Krishnakanth M. Stuttering: 3 case reports. Reactions.2008; 1222:4.
Stager S et al. A double-blind trial of Pimozide and paroxetine for stuttering. In: Hulstijn W et al., eds. Speech Production: Motor Control, Brain Research, and Fluency Disorders. 1997;379-382.
Bloch M, Stager S, Braun A, Calis KA, Turcasso NM, Grothe DR et al. Pimozide-induced depression in men who stutter. J. Clin. Psychiatry.1997;58:433–436.
Brady JP, Ali Z. Alprazolam, citalopram, and clomipramine for stuttering. J Clin Psychopharmacol.2000;20(2):287.
Stager SV, Ludlow CL, Gordon CT, Cotelingam M, Rapoport JL. Fluency changes in persons who stutter following a double blind trial of clomipramine and desipramine. J. Speech Hear. Res.1995; 38:516–525.
Gordon CT, Cotelingam GM, Stager S, Ludlow CL, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL. A double-blind comparison of clomipramine and desipramine in the treatment of developmental stuttering. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56(6):238-42.
Maguire GA, Franklin D, Vatakis NG, Morgenshtern E, Denko T, Yaruss JS et al. Exploratory Randomized Clinical Study of Pagoclone in Persistent Developmental Stuttering. The Examining Pagoclone for persistent developmental Stuttering Study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2010;30(1):48-56.
Maguire GA, LaSalle L, Hoffmeyer D, Nelson M, Lochhead JD, Davis K, et al. Ecopipam as a pharmacologic treatment of stuttering. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry. 2019; 31:164-168.
Maguire G, Bird A. Gabapentin for treating acquired neurogenic stuttering. Ann Clin Psychiatry.2012;24:240.
Althaus M, Vink HJ, Minderaa RB, Brouwer SM, Oosterhoff MD. Lack of effect of Clonidine on stuttering in children. American Journal Psychiatry.1995; 152: 1087-1089.
Brady JP, McAllister TW, Price TR. Verapamil in stuttering. Biol. Psychiatry.1990; 27: 680–681.
Maguire GA, Riley GD, Benjamin PY. A neurological basis of stuttering? The Lancet Neurology. 2002;1(7):407.
Burd I, Kerbeshian J. Stuttering and stimulants. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.1991 ;11:72–73.
Maguire GA, Franklin DL, Kirsten J. Asenapine for the treatment of stuttering: An analysis of three cases. Am. J. Psychiatry.2011;168:651–652.