Knowledge and Attitudes of Caregivers’ of People with Schizophrenia towards the Illness: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Regional Psychiatric Hospital in Nigeria

Main Article Content

E. A. Uteh Blessing
O. Olotu Sunday
O. Omoaregba Joyce
O. James Bawo

Abstract

Aim: To ascertain the attitudes of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia comprising their knowledge of the illness and social distance towards people with the illness.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria, between April and July 2015.

Methodology: A systematic random sample of caregiver/patient dyads (n=281) were recruited. Caregivers were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire and, a brief interview on their knowledge of the aetiological factors, treatment for schizophrenia and level of social distance towards people with schizophrenia. Patients were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire and the PANSS.

Results: Three hundred and forty-one caregivers were approached but 281 gave consent and participated in the study (response rate was 82%, level of significance value was set at p<0.05 and 95% confidence interval was used). Among the 281 caregivers surveyed, 22.7% mostly ascribed psychosocial cause for schizophrenia, their level of knowledge of schizophrenia was generally average (49.5%). More than two-thirds of the caregivers reported high social distancing. Better attitudes to schizophrenia among caregivers was significantly associated with caregivers who were unemployed (p<0.03) and caregivers whose patients’ had at least 12 years of formal education (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Average knowledge of disease aetiology among caregivers was associated with high social distancing. Qualitative studies are required to explore the interactions of these identified factors.

Keywords:
Caregivers, schizophrenia, knowledge, attitudes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Blessing, E. A. U., Sunday, O. O., Joyce, O. O., & Bawo, O. J. (2020). Knowledge and Attitudes of Caregivers’ of People with Schizophrenia towards the Illness: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Regional Psychiatric Hospital in Nigeria. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, 14(4), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2020/v14i430138
Section
Original Research Article

References

World Health Organization. The Global burden of diseases: 2004 Update. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2008.

Oheari JU. Caregiver burden and psychotic patients’ perception of social support in a Nigerian setting. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2001;36: 86–93.

Fiorillo A, Bassi M, de Girolamo G, Catapano F, Romeo F. The impact of a psychoeducational intervention on family members’ views about schizophrenia: Results from the OASIS Italian multi-centre study. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry. 2011;57:596–603.

Shinde M, Desai A, Pawar S. Knowledge, attitudes and practices among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Western Maharashtra. Int. J. Sci. Res. 2014;3:516–522.

Neupane D, Dhakal S, Thapa S, Bhandari PM. Caregivers’ attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma: A cross- sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Nepal. PLoS One. 2016;1–12.

Teferra S, Hanlon C, Beyero T, Jacobsson L, Shibre T. Perspectives on reasons for non-adherence to medication in persons with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: A qualitative study of patients, caregivers and health workers. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:1.

Omolayo BO, Olawa DB. Attitude of care-givers towards mental illness, social support and coping strategy as predictors of relapse among mental patients. 2013;2: 89–98.

Adewuya AO, MR. Social distance towards people with mental illness amongst Nigerian 10.1007/s00127-005-, university students. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40:865–868.

Gureje O, Lasebikan VO, Ephraim-Oluwanuga O, Olley BO, Kola L. Community study of knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in Nigeria. Br. J. Psychiatry. 2005;186:436–441.

Igberase O, Okogbeni E. Beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia among caregivers in Midwestern Nigeria. Ment. Illn. 2017;9.

Adewuya A, Makanjuola R. Ay beliefs regarding causes of mental illness in Nigeria: Pattern and correlates. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008;43: 336–41.

WHO. The World Health Report; 2001. Available:http://www.who.int/whr2001/2001

Dorian M, Ramírez GJ, López S, Hernández B. Acceptance and expressed emotion in Mexican American caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia. Fam Process. 2008;47:215–228.

Kirkwood B, Sterne J. Essential medical statistics 2nd Editio. (Blackwell Science); 2003.

Adewuya A, Ola B, Mosaku S, Fatoye F, Eegunranti A. Attitude towards antipsychotics among out-patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 2006;207–211.

Higashi K, Medic G, Littlewood KJ, Diez T, Granström O, Hert M. De. Medication adherence in schizophrenia: Factors influencing adherence and consequences of nonadherence, a systematic literature review. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2013;3:200–18.

Stuart H, Arboleda-Flórez J. Community attitudes towards people with schizophrenia. Can. J. Psychiatry. 2001;46:245–52.

World Psychiatric Association Programme to reduce stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia. Available:http://www.opendoors.com

Adelufosi A, Adebowale T, Abayomi O, Mosanya J. Medication adherence and quality of life among Nigerian outpatients with schizophrenia. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry. 2012;72–79.

Matthias J, Wulf R. Attitude towards long acting depot antipsychotics: A Survey of patients, relatives and psychiatrist. Psychiatry Res. 2010;175:58–62.

Adelufosi AO, Ogunwale A, Adeponle AB, Abayomi O. Pattern of attendance and predictors of default among Nigerian outpatients with schizophrenia. Afr J Psychiatry. 2013;16:283–287.

Karthik MS, Kulhara PC. Attitude towards second-generation antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives. Hum. Psychopharmacol. Clin. Exp. 2013;28:457–465.

Kay S, Fiszbein A, Opler L. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 1987;13: 261–76.

Lawal R, Suleiman G, Onyeze B. Risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. Niger. Med. Pract. 2003;44: 11–18.

Lasebikan VO, Ayinde OO. Family burden in caregivers of schizophrenia patients: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. Indian J. Psychol. Med. 2013;35:60–66.

Igberase O, Morankinyo O, Lawani A, James B, Omoaregba J. Burden of care among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in mid-western Nigeria. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry. 2010;20:1–7.

Karthik M, Warikoo N, Chakrabarti S, Grover S, Kulhara P. Attitudes towards antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia on first- or second-generation medications. Indian J. Psychol. Med. 2014;36:288–293.

Adebowale T, Oguunlesi A. Beliefs and knowledge about aetiology of mental illness among Nigerian psychiatric patients and their relatives. Afr J Med Sci. 1999;28: 35–41.

Schulze B, Angermeyer M. Subjective experiences of stigma. A focus group study of schizophrenic patients, their relatives and mental health professionals. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56:299–312.

Wolff G, Pathare S, Craig T, Leff J. Community attitudes to mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;168:183–90.

Freudenreich O, Cather C, Evins A, Henderson D, Goff D. Attitudes of schizophrenia outpatients toward psychiatric medications: Relationship to clinical variables and insight. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 2004;1372–1376.

Angermeyer M, Holzinger A, Matschinger H. Mental health literacy and attitude towards people with Psychiatry. Eur, Ment. Illn. a trend Anal. Based Popul. Surv. East. Part Ger. 2009;24:225–32.

Veltman A, Cameron J, Stewart D. The experience of providing care to relatives with chronic mental illness. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2002;190:108–14.