COVID-19 Pandemic: Scoping Review through the Lens of 9-Month-based Knowledge and Brief Snapshots of 10 Cases and Five Family Units, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Main Article Content

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi
Abdulhameed Abdullah Al- Habeeb


Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has questioning origin in Wuhan, an industrial city of China. The novel coronavirus 2 (NCV2) was first identified in December 2019, and World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a global public health emergency on 30 January 2020, officially named it as COVID-19 on February 11 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. COVID-19 causes physical and mental health problems of variable severity and outcomes among people around the world.

Objective: This study has two aims;1) to conduct a scoping review of COVID-19’s epidemiological trend, clinical manifestations, therapeutics, diagnosis, and progress on vaccine development; and 2) to describe a case series of ten consultees’ and conveniently selected five family units’ mental and physical health effects of COVID-19 over the past 9 months, December to August 31, 2020.

Methods: We used keywords and Boolean Operators for conducting electronic searches of published literature in three largest databases on COVID-19 and regularly received notifications from COVID-19 resource centers, scientific journals, international and national research and economic institutions, and various websites, which helped to retain 82 articles after iterative screening for this review. In addition, 10 cases and the heads of 5 family units were interviewed virtually for assessing the mental and physical health of all family members affected by COVID-19.

Results: COVID-19 pandemic presents with variable clinical manifestations and outcomes attributable to the persons’ immune system, age and gender, physical and mental comorbidities, and adversely affects the biopsychosocial, cultural and economic fabrics of the world population. Basic preventive precautions and nonspecific drug interventions against COVID-19 are relatively effective with inconstant morbidity and mortality, and vaccine development researches (phase I-III) are in progress around the world. All persons in case series, not corona positive except one, presented with mental and physical health problems of wider nature that required integrated treatment interventions while majority of family unit members were less affected mentally or physically by COVID-19 and improved with preventive precautions.

Conclusion: COVID-19 is highly virulent disease linked with variable mental health problems, greater morbidity and mortality, severe strains on healthcare organizations and economic downturn around the world. Despite difficult access to services, overall our case series and family members showed good outcome. Information concerning COVID-19 is continuously evolving and, hence, further scoping reviews, randomized clinical trials and surveys concerning its several perspectives are needed in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in the Gulf countries.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, COVID-19 pandemic, physical and Mental health, prevention strategies, medication interventions, case series and family units.

Article Details

How to Cite
Qureshi, N. A., & Habeeb, A. A. A.-. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic: Scoping Review through the Lens of 9-Month-based Knowledge and Brief Snapshots of 10 Cases and Five Family Units, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, 14(4), 14-47.
Review Article


World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports; 2020. Available:

Chen X, Tian J, Li G, Li Guowei. Initiation of a new infection control system for the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Infectious Diseases; 2020.

Team NCPERE. Vital surveillances: the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19). China CDC Weekly. 2020;113-122.

Centers for disease control and prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): People who are at higher risk for severe illness; 2020. Available: 2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-at-higher-risk.html

Cai Q, Chen F, Luo F, et al. Obesity and COVID-19 severity in a designated hospital in Shenzhen, China. Preprints with the Lancet; 2020. Available:

Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med; 2020. Available:

Vanamoorthy P, Singh GP, Bidkar PU, Mitra R, Sriganesh K, Chavali S, et al. The Neurocritical Care Society of India (NCSI) and the Indian Society of Neuroanaesthesiology and Critical Care (ISNACC) Joint position statement and advisory on the practice of neurocritical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal Neuroanaesthesiology Critical Care; 2020.

Sun D, Li H, Lu XX, et al. Clinical features of severe pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan: A single center’s observational study. World J Pediatr.2020. Available:

Cui Y, Tian M, Huang D, et al. A 55-day-old female infant infected with COVID 19: presenting with pneumonia, liver injury, and heart damage. J Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

Cai J, Xu J, Lin D, et al. A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features. Clin Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

Kam KQ, Yung CF, Cui L, et al. A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load. Clin Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of 2,143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China. Pediatrics; 2020. Available:

Cui X, Zhang T, Zheng J, et al. Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): A review of demographic, clinical, laboratory and imaging features in 2,597 pediatric patients. J Med Virol.2020. Available:

Tagarro A, Epalza C, Santos M, et al. Screening and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children in Madrid, Spain. JAMA Pediatr.2020. Available:

DeBiasi RL, Song X, Delaney M, et al. Severe COVID-19 in children and young adults in the Washington, DC, metropolitan region. J Pediatr.2020. Available:

Chao JY, Derespina KR, Herold BC, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized and critically ill children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at a Tertiary Care Medical Center in New York City. J Pediatr.2020. Available:

Fan C, Lei D, Fang C, et al. Perinatal transmission of COVID-19 associated SARS-CoV-2: should we worry? Clin Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

Zeng L, Xia S, Yuan W, et al. Neonatal early-onset infection with SARS-CoV-2 in 33 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr.2020. Available: 32215598

Chiotos K, Hayes M, Kimberlin DW, et al. Multicenter initial guidance on use of antivirals for children withCOVID-19/SARS-CoV-2. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc.2020. Available:;

Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Guidance: Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19; 2020. Available: Accessed May 28, 2020.

Riphagen S, Gomez X, Gonzalez-Martinez C, Wilkinson N, Theocharis P. Hyper inflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2020; 395(10237):1607-1608. Available: York State. Childhood inflammatory disease related to COVID-19.2020; Available: June.2020.

Golberstein E, Wen H, Miller BF. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mental health for children and adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics; 2020.

Verdoni L, Mazza A, Gervasoni A, et al. An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study. Lancet.2020.

Toubiana J, Poirault C, Corsia A, et al. Outbreak of Kawasaki disease in children during COVID-19 pandemic: A prospective observational study in Paris, France. Med Rxiv.2020.

Haveri A, Smura T, Kuivanen S, et al. Serological and molecular findings during SARS-CoV-2 infection: The first case study in Finland, January to February 2020. Euro Surveill.2020;25(11).

Long QX, Liu BZ, Deng HJ, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. Nat Med; 2020.

Okba NMA, Müller MA, Li W, et al. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody responses in COVID-19 patients. medRxiv; 2020.

Xiang F, Wang X, He X, et al. Antibody detection and dynamic characteristics in patients with COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis; 2020.

Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease2019. Clin Infect Dis.2020.

Rizzo S, Chawla D, Zalocusky K, Keebler D, Chia J, Lindsay L, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of 16,780 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States. medRxiv; 2020

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med; 2020. Available:

Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1-30, 2020. MMWR. 2020;69(15):458-464.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72,314 cases. From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA; 2020.

Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis.2020;20(4):425-434.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet.2020;10223:497-506.

Rogers JP Chesney E Oliver D, et al. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7:611-627.

Butler M, Watson C, Rooney A, et al. BMJ blog: the neurology and neuropsychiatry of COVID-19. Available:

Salazar de Pablo G, Serrano JV, Catalan A, et al. Impact of coronavirus syndromes on physical and mental health of health care workers: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord.2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.022.

Solomon IH, Normandin E, Bhattacharyya S, et al. Neuropathological features of Covid-19. N Engl J Med.2020 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2019373

Chen Y, Zhou H, Zhou Y, Zhou F. Prevalence of self-reported depression and anxiety among pediatric medical staff members during the COVID-19 outbreak in Guiyang, China. Psychiatry Research. 2020; 288.Article 113005.

Banerjee D. Psychological preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic, perspectives from India. Psychiatry Research. 2020; 288.Article 112999.

Christopher J. Burrell, Colin R. Howard, Frederick A. Murphy. Chapter 31 – Coronaviruses. Editor(s): Christopher J. Burrell, Colin R. Howard, Frederick A. Murphy. Fenner and White's Medical Virology (Fifth Edition), Academic Press. 2017;437-446.

Black S.SARS-CoV-2 disguises its own genetic material to facilitate infection. Available:⊂=gen&pag=dis& Item ID=1071

Pan Y, Zhang D, Yang P, Poon LLM, Wang Q. Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20(4):411-412.

Craven J. COVID-19 vaccine tracker; 2020. Available:

Kreye J, Reincke SM, Kornau H-C, Sánchez-Sendin E, Corman VM, Liu H. A therapeutic non-self-reactive SARS-CoV-2 antibody protects from lung pathology in a COVID-19 hamster model. Cell; 2020. DOI:

De Savi C, Hughes DL, Kvaerno L. Quest for a COVID-19 Cure by repurposing small molecule drugs: Mechanism of action, clinical development, synthesis at scale, and outlook for supply. Organic Process Research & Development; 2020;2.

Food and Drug Administration. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency use authorizations for medical devices; 2020. Available:

Centers for disease control and prevention. Interim guidelines for collecting, handling, and testing clinical specimens from persons for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); 2020. Available:

Centers 2019 (COVID-19). For Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluating and testing persons for coronavirus disease; 2020. Available:

Guo L, Ren L, Yang S, et al. Profiling early humoral response to diagnose novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis; 2020. Available: 32198501

COVID-19, Police reform, and fixing a broken mental health system – Medscape; 2020.

U.S. CDC head says mask-wearing could get COVID-19 under control within 4-8 weeks; 2020. Available;

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(13): 1199-1207.

Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):970-971.

Yu P, Zhu J, Zhang Z, Han Y, Huang L. A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating potential person-to-person transmission during the incubation period. J Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, et al. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020. Available: 32083643

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application. Ann Intern Med.2020. Available:

Coronavirus; 2020. Available: digital/media/03Mar_PTMorganstein_Coronavirus_PDF_V2.pdf

Centers for disease control and prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): cases in U.S.; 2020. Available: Accessed April 9, 2020.

Food and drug administration. FDA cautions against use of Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine for COVID-19 outside of the hospital setting or a clinical trial due to risk of heart rhythm problems; 2020. Available: fda-cautions-against-use-hydroxychloroquine-or-chloroquine-covid-19-outside-hospital-setting-or

Best BM, Capparelli EV, Diep H, et al. Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir/ritonavir crushed versus whole tablets in children. Journal Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2011;58(4): 385-391. Available: 21876444

Gilead Sciences. Remdesivir (GS-5734) investigator’s brochure. Edition 5; 2020.

Kolilekas L, Loverdos K, Giannakaki S, et al. Can steroids reverse the severe COVID-19 induced ‘cytokine storm’? Journal Medical Virology; 2020. Available:

Fadel R, Morrison AR, Vahia A, et al. Early short course corticosteroids in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

So C, Ro S, Murakami M, Imai R, Jinta T. High-dose, short-term corticosteroids for ARDS caused by COVID-19: A case series. Respirol Case Rep.2020; 8(6): 00596. Available: pubmed/32514354

Yuan M, Xu X, Xia D, et al. Effects of corticosteroid treatment for non-severe COVID-19 pneumonia: A propensity score-based analysis. Shock; 2020. Available:

Yang Z, Liu J, Zhou Y, Zhao X, Zhao Q, Liu J. The effect of corticosteroid treatment on patients with coronavirus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020;81(1):e13-e20. Available:

Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY). Low-cost Dexamethasone reduces death by up to one third in hospitalized patients with severe respiratory complications of COVID-19; 2020. Available:

Horby P, Shen Lim W, Emberson J, et al. Effect of dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Preliminary report. medRxiv; 2020. Available:

Spinner CD, Gottlieb RL, Criner GJ, et al. Effect of Remdesivir vs standard care on clinical status at 11 days in patients with moderate covid-19: A randomized clinical Trial.JAMA.2020. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.16349

McFee RB. COVID-19: Therapeutics and interventions currently under consideration. Dis Mon. 2020;101058. DOI: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.101058.

Rahman O, Trigonis RA, Craft MK, Kruer RM, Miller EM, Terry CL, et al. Corticosteroid Use in Severely Hypoxemic COVID-19 Patients: An observational cohort analysis of dosing patterns and outcomes in the early phase of the pandemic. MedRxiv; 2020.

Vannucchi AM, Sordi B, Morettini A, Nozzoli C, Poggesi L, Pieralli F, et al. Compassionate use of JAK1/2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib for severe COVID-19: A prospective observational study. Leukemia. 2020;1-3.

Ji P, Chen J, Golding A, Nikolov NP, Saluja B, Ren YR, et al. Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Proteins in COVID‐19: Current clinical development and clinical pharmacology considerations. The Journal Clinical Pharmacology; 2020.

Centers for Disease control and prevention. Interim considerations for infection prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in inpatient obstetric healthcare settings; 2020. Available:

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice advisory: Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19); 2019. Available:

Society for maternal fetal medicine. Coronavirus (COVID-19) and pregnancy: what maternal fetal medicines subspecialists need to know; 2020. Available: Accessed April 8, 2020.

Rasmussen SA, Smulian JC, Lednicky JA, Wen TS, Jamieson DJ. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know. Am J Obstet Gynecol.2020. Available:

Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: A retrospective review of medical records. Lancet. 2020;395(10226):809-815.

Liu Y, Chen H, Tang K, Guo Y. Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines 24 Pregnancy. J Infect; 2020. Available: pubmed/32145216

Breslin N, Baptiste C, Miller R, et al. COVID-19 in pregnancy: Early lessons. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM; 2020. Available:

World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); 2020. Available:

Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, et al. COVID-19 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM.2020:100118. Available:

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Outpatient assessment and management for pregnant women with suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19); 2020; Available:

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. COVID-19 frequently asked questions for obstetricians-gynecologists, obstetrics; 2020. Available: physician-faqs/covid19-faqs-for-ob-gyns-obstetrics

Nicola M, O'Neill N, Sohrabi C, Khan M, Agha M, Agha R. Evidence based management guideline for the COVID-19 pandemic - Review article. Int J Surg.2020; 77:206-216.

Hajra A, Mathai SV, Ball S, Bandyopadhyay D, Veyseh M, Chakraborty S, et al. Management of Thrombotic Complications in COVID-19: An Update. Drugs.2020:1-0.

Stojkovic-Filipovic J, Bosic M. Treatment of COVID 19-Repurposing drugs commonly used in dermatology. Dermatologic Therapy. 2020;13829.

Wang Y, Liu Y, Liu L, Wang X, Luo N, Ling L. Clinical outcome of 55 asymptomatic cases at the time of hospital admission infected with SARS-Coronavirus-2 in Shenzhen, China. J Infect Dis; 2020. Available:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim infection prevention and control recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare settings; 2020. Available:

Centers for disease control and prevention. Strategies to optimize the supply of PPE and equipment; 2020. Available:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Approved respirator standards; 2006. Available:

Alhazzani W, Moller MH, Arabi YM, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: Guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Intensive Care Med; 2020. Available:

Uddin M, Mustafa F, Rizvi TA, Loney T, Suwaidi HA, Al-Marzouqi AH, et al. SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Viral genomics, epidemiology, vaccines, and therapeutic interventions. Viruses. 2020; 12(5):526.

Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ, HLH Across Specialty Collaboration. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet (London, England). 2020;395(10229):1033.

van Dorp L, Acman M, Richard D, Shaw LP, Ford CE, Ormond L, et al. Emergence of genomic diversity and recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2020:104351.

Thorlund K, Dron L, Park J, Hsu G, Forrest JI, Mills EJ. A real-time dashboard of clinical trials for COVID-19. The Lancet Digital Health. 2020;2(6):286-287.

Bauchner H, Fontanarosa PB. Randomized clinical trials and COVID-19: managing expectations. JAMA.2020.

Hannan KS, McKinney WP. An overview of current clinical trials of agents for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in the United States. The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections. 2020; 4(1):49.

Ozma MA, Maroufi P, Khodadadi E, Köse Ş, Esposito I, Ganbarov K, et al. Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) during the outbreak period. Infez Med. 2020; 28(2):153-165.

Qu G, Li X, Hu L, Jiang G. An imperative need for research on the role of environmental factors in transmission of novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Environ. Sci. Technol.2020; 54(7): 3730–3732.

Fernandes N. Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the World Economy; 2020. Available: or

Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Losifidis C, Agha M, Agha R. The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International Journal Surgery (London, England).2020; 78:185.

Ji Y, Ma Z, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q. Potential association between COVID-19 mortality and health-care resource availability. The Lancet Global Health. 2020;8(4):480.

Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry.2020; 7(4):15-6.

Wichmann D, Sperhake JP, Lütgehetmann M, Steurer S, Edler C, Heinemann A, et al. Autopsy findings and venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Annals Internal Medicine. 2020;6.

Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Mental health and the Covid-19 pandemic. New England Journal Medicine. 202013.

Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal Psychiatry. 2020; 102066.

Wang C, Cheng Z, Yue XG, McAleer M. Risk management of COVID-19 by Universities in China. Journal Risk Financial Management.2020;13:36.

Arora A, Jha AK, Alat P, Das SS. Understanding coronaphobia. Asian Journal Psychiatry. 2020.102384. ‏

Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard IM. Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. Journal Anxiety Disorders. 2020; 74;102258. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102258

Petzold MB, Bendau A, Plag J, Pyrkosch L, Maricic LM, Rogoll J, et al. Development of the COVID-19-anxiety questionnaire and first psychometric testing. British Journal Psychiatry Open. 2020;6(5):1–4. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2020.82.

Arpaci I, Karataş K, Baloğlu M. The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). Personality and Individual Differences. 2020;164. Avaialble: