Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Concise Update on Clinical, Diagnostic and Integrative and Alternative Therapeutic Perspectives
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal,
Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a common multifactorial condition that presents with key manifestations and comorbid with many systemic diseases and regional pain syndromes. Objective: This study aims to concisely review clinical, diagnostic and integrative therapeutic aspects of myofascial pain syndrome.
Methods: E-searches (2000-2019) using keywords and Boolean operators were made and using exclusion and inclusion criteria, 50 full articles that focused on myofascial pain syndrome were retained for this review.
Results: Myofascial pain syndrome is a multidimensional musculoskeletal disorder with ill-understood etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology and characterized by tender taut muscle with myofascial trigger points, muscle twitch response, specific pattern of referred pain and autonomic symptoms. A variety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies with variable efficacy are used in myofascial pain syndrome, the latter modalities such as education, stretching and exercises, moist hot and cold packs, dry needling and myofascial massage or myofascial trigger point massage are used as first line options.
Conclusion: Myofascial pain syndrome and trigger points initiated by repeated strains and injuries co-occur with diverse physical diseases and regional pain syndromes, which need comprehensive diagnostic evaluation using multiple methods. Several interventions are used in patients with myofascial pain syndrome who effectively respond to myofascial massage. This study calls for exploring etiopathogenesis and basic pathophysiological mechanisms underlying myofascial pain syndrome in future.
- Myofascial pain syndrome
- myofascial trigger points
- taut muscle
- myofascial massage
- regional pain syndromes.
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